# Frequency Distribution Of Gender Biology Essay

CHAPTER V:

RESULTS

## FIG 10: FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION OF GENDER

## TABLE 8: DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS OF AGE (YEARS)

## Age (years)

## Mean

52.5683

## Median

50.0000

## Std. Deviation

9.76985

## Range

50.00

## Minimum

40.00

## Maximum

90.00

## TABLE 9: DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS OF AGE IN RELATION GENDER

## Age (years)

## Male

## Female

## Total

## Mean

54.7157

50.8160

52.5683

## Std. Deviation

9.93581

9.30954

9.76985

## Std. Error

.98379

.83267

.64845

## 95% C.I

## Lower Bound

52.7641

49.1679

51.2905

## Upper Bound

56.6673

52.4641

53.8461

## Minimum

40.00

40.00

40.00

## Maximum

90.00

80.00

90.00

## p- value = 0.003 (significant difference)

## FIG 11: BAR GRAPH SHOWING THE DURATION OF DISEASE

## FIG 12: BAR GRAPH SHOWING THE FREQUENCY DISTRIBUTION OF DURATION OF DISEASE IN RELATION TO AGE (YEARS)

## TABLE 10: DURATION OF DISEASE IN RELATION TO GENDER

## Male

## Female

## Total

## No.

## %

## No.

## %

## No.

## %

## Duration of Disease

## Less than a Year

2

2.0%

2

1.6%

4

1.8%

## 1-10 years

4

3.9%

2

1.6%

6

2.6%

## 11-20 years

46

45.1%

57

45.6%

103

45.4%

## 21-30 years

29

28.4%

50

40.0%

79

34.8%

## 31-40 years

16

15.7%

11

8.8%

27

11.9%

## > 41 years

5

4.9%

3

2.4%

8

3.5%

## Total

## 102

## 100.0%

## 125

## 100.0%

## 227

## 100.0%

## p- value = 0.235 (in-significant difference)

## FIG 13: TYPES OF TREATMENT USED BY PATIENTS

## TABLE 11: TYPES OF TREATMENT IN RELATION TO MALES AND FEMALE

## Male

## Female

## Total

No.

## %

No.

## %

No.

## %

## Type of treatment

## Diet

2

2.0%

1

.8%

3

1.3%

## OHG

19

18.6%

23

18.4%

42

18.5%

## Insulin

68

66.7%

92

73.6%

160

70.5%

## Insulin + OHG

7

6.9%

3

2.4%

10

4.4%

## No treatment

4

3.9%

6

4.8%

10

4.4%

## Others

2

2.0%

0

.0%

2

.9%

## Total

102

100.0%

125

100.0%

227

100.0%

## p- value = 0.302 (in-significant difference)TABLE 12: FREQUENCY TABLE OF MICHIGAN NEUROPATHY SCORE

## Score

## Frequency

## Percent

## Cumulative Percent

## .00

6

2.6

2.6

## 1.00

16

7.0

9.7

## 2.00

44

19.4

29.1

## 3.00

43

18.9

48.0

## 4.00

41

18.1

66.1

## 5.00

36

15.9

81.9

## 6.00

41

18.1

100.0

## Total

227

100.0

## TABLE 13: DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS OF MICHIGAN NEUROPATHY SCORE

## Michigan Neuropathy Score

## Mean

3.6256

## Median

4.0000

## Std. Deviation

1.66586

## Range

6.00

## Minimum

.00

## Maximum

6.00

## TABLE 14: DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS OF MICHIGAN SCORE IN RELATION TO GENDER

## Michigan Neuropathy Score

## Male

## Female

## Total

## Mean

3.5686

3.6720

3.6256

## Std. Deviation

1.69162

1.64991

1.66586

## Std. Error

.16750

.14757

.11057

## 95% C.I

## Lower Bound

3.2364

3.3799

3.4077

## Upper Bound

3.9009

3.9641

3.8434

## Minimum

.00

.00

.00

## Maximum

6.00

6.00

6.00

## p- value = 0.643 (in-significant difference)

## FIG 14: MEAN MICHIGAN SCORE WITH RESPECT TO DURATION OF DISEASE

## TABLE 15: FREQUENCY TABLE OF MONOFILAMENT TESTING (RIGHT FOOT)

## Score

Frequency

Percent

Cumulative Percent

## .00

22

9.7

9.7

## 1.00

1

.4

10.1

## 2.00

3

1.3

11.5

## 3.00

5

2.2

13.7

## 4.00

5

2.2

15.9

## 5.00

7

3.1

18.9

## 6.00

9

4.0

22.9

## 7.00

12

5.3

28.2

## 8.00

29

12.8

41.0

## 9.00

6

2.6

43.6

## 10.00

128

56.4

100.0

## Total

227

100.0

## TABLE 16: DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS OF MONOFILAMENT TESTING (RIGHT FOOT)

## Monofilament Testing (right foot)

## Mean

7.8458

## Median

10.0000

## Std. Deviation

3.25441

## Range

10.00

## Minimum

.00

## Maximum

10.00

## TABLE 17: DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS OF MONOFILAMENT TESTING (RIGHT FOOT) IN RELATION TO GENDER

## Monofilament Testing (right foot)

## Male

## Female

## Total

## Mean

7.6275

8.0240

7.8458

## Std. Deviation

3.14634

3.34197

3.25441

## Std. Error

.31153

.29892

.21600

## 95% C.I

## Lower Bound

7.0095

7.4324

7.4202

## Upper Bound

8.2455

8.6156

8.2715

## Minimum

.00

.00

.00

## Maximum

10.00

10.00

10.00

## p-value = 0.362 (in-significant difference)

## FIG 15: MEAN MONOFILAMENT TESTING (RIGHT FOOT) WITH RESPECT TO DURATION OF DISEASE

## FIG 16: INTERPRETATION OF MONOFILAMENT TESTING (RIGHT FOOT)

## TABLE 18: DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS OF AGE (YEARS) IN RELATION TO INTERPRETATION OF MONOFILAMENT TESTING (RIGHT FOOT)

## Age (years)

## Normal

## Reduced Sensation

## Absent Sensation

## Total

## Mean

51.0581

56.5

54.2727

52.5683

## Std. Deviation

9.24011

10.4007

9.59257

9.76985

## Std. Error

0.74218

1.47087

2.04514

0.64845

## 95% C.I

## Lower Bound

49.5919

53.5442

50.0196

51.2905

## Upper Bound

52.5242

59.4558

58.5258

53.8461

## Minimum

40

40

40

40

## Maximum

80

90

70

90

## p- value = 0.0000 (Significant difference)

## TABLE 19: INTERPRETATION MONOFILAMENT TESTING (RIGHT FOOT) IN RELATION TO GENDER

## Male

## Female

## Total

No.

## %

No.

## %

No.

## %

## Normal

62

60.8

93

74.4

155

68.3

## Reduced Sensation

33

32.4

17

13.6

50

22.0

## Absent Sensation

7

6.9

15

12.0

22

9.7

## Total

102

100.0

125

100.0

227

100.0

## FIG 17: INTERPRETATION OF MONOFILAMENT TESTING (RIGHT FOOT) IN RELATION TO DURATION OF DISEASE

## p- value = 0.433 (in-significant difference)

## TABLE 20: FREQUENCY TABLE OF MONOFILAMENT TESTING (LEFT FOOT)

## Score

## Frequency

## Percent

## Cumulative Percent

## .00

21

9.3

9.3

## 1.00

3

1.3

10.6

## 2.00

2

.9

11.5

## 3.00

4

1.8

13.2

## 4.00

4

1.8

15.0

## 5.00

9

4.0

18.9

## 6.00

9

4.0

22.9

## 7.00

12

5.3

28.2

## 8.00

30

13.2

41.4

## 9.00

6

2.6

44.1

## 10.00

127

55.9

100.0

## Total

227

100.0

## TABLE 21: DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS OF MONOFILAMENT TESTING (LEFT FOOT)

## Monofilament Testing (left foot)

## Mean

7.8502

## Median

10.0000

## Std. Deviation

3.23484

## Range

10.00

## Minimum

.00

## Maximum

10.00

## TABLE 22: DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS OF MONOFILAMENT TESTING (LEFT FOOT) IN RELATION TO GENDER

## Monofilament Testing (left foot)

## Male

## Female

## Total

## Mean

7.6471

8.0160

7.8502

## Std. Deviation

3.09150

3.35045

3.23484

## Std. Error

.30610

.29967

.21470

## 95% C.I

## Lower Bound

7.0398

7.4229

7.4271

## Upper Bound

8.2543

8.6091

8.2733

## Minimum

.00

.00

.00

## Maximum

10.00

10.00

10.00

## p- value = 0.394 (in-significant difference)

## FIG 18: MEAN MONOFILAMENT TESTING (LEFT FOOT) WITH RESPECT TO DURATION OF DISEASE

## FIG 19: INTERPRETATION MONOFILAMENT TESTING (LEFT FOOT)

## TABLE 23: DESCRIPTIVE STATISTICS OF AGE (YEARS) IN RELATION TO INTERPRETATION OF MONOFILAMENT TESTING (LEFT FOOT)

## Age (years)

## Normal

## Reduced Sensation

## Absent Sensation

## Total

## Mean

51.1083

56.7347

53.7619

52.5683

## Std. Deviation

9.19140

10.57272

9.51790

9.76985

## Std. Error

.73355

1.51039

2.07698

.64845

## 95% C.I

## Lower Bound

49.6593

53.6979

49.4294

51.2905

## Upper Bound

52.5573

59.7715

58.0944

53.8461

## Minimum

40.00

40.00

40.00

40.00

## Maximum

80.00

90.00

70.00

90.00

## p- value = 0.0000 (Significant difference)

## TABLE 24: INTERPRETATION MONOFILAMENT TESTING (LEFT FOOT) IN RELATION TO GENDER

## Male

## Female

## Total

No.

## %

No.

## %

No.

## %

## Normal

63

61.8%

94

75.2%

157

69.2%

## Reduced Sensation

33

32.4%

16

12.8%

49

21.6%

## Absent Sensation

6

5.9%

15

12.0%

21

9.3%

## Total

102

100.0%

125

100.0%

227

100.0%

## p- value = 0.235 (in-significant difference)

## FIG 20: INTERPRETATION OF MONOFILAMENT TESTING (LEFT FOOT) IN RELATION TO DURATION OF DISEASE

## p- value = 0.367 (in-significant difference)

## TABLE 25: NET PERCENTAGE OF MONOFILAMENT TESTING (RIGHT + LEFT FOOT)

## Right Foot Results

## Left Foot Results

## Mean Result (Right + Left Foot)

No.

## %

No.

## %

## %

## Normal

155

68.3

157

69.2

68.75

## Reduced Sensation

50

22

49

21.6

21.8

## Absent Sensation

22

9.7

21

9.3

9.5

## Total

227

100.0

227

100.0

100.0

227 patients who fulfilled the inclusion criteria were included in the study. Among the included patients, 102 patients i.e., 45 % were male and 125 patients i.e., 55 % were female.

Baseline characteristics of these patients were analyzed in terms of age, gender, duration of diabetes mellitus, types of treatment and Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument Score System.

Mean age of the patients was 52.5683 ?? 9.76985 with a 95% C.I. of 51.2905 for the lower bound and 53.8461 for the upper bound, median is 50.0000. Standard error was 0.64845. Range of age in years was 50.00; minimum age limit of patients that came to outpatient department was 40.00 and maximum is 90.00.

Mean age of male population was 54.7157 ?? 9.93581 with a 95% C.I. of 52.7641 for the lower bound and 56.6673 for the upper bound. Standard error was 0.98379. Minimum age limit of patients that came to outpatient department was 40.00 and maximum is 90.00.

Mean female population was 50.8160 ?? 9.30954 with a 95% CI of 49.1679 for the lower bound and 52.4641 for the upper bound. Standard error was 0.83267. Minimum and maximum age in years limit for male is 40.00 and 90.00; for female is 40.00 and 80.00 and in total is 40.00 90.00.

p -value was 0.003 which means significant difference.

Frequency of duration of disease for less than one year, 1-10 years, 11-20, 21-30, 31-40 and > 40 years was 4, 6, 103, 79, 27 and 8 respectively.

When total duration of diabetes mellitus was analyzed according to age of the study population, most of the patients were found to have mean age of 60 year and they had a disease duration of ???41 years .Those with a duration of 31-40 years were found to have mean age of 57 years. Mean age of those with duration of 21-30 years was 51 years whereas mean age of those with disease duration of 11-20 years was 53 years. Mean age of the remaining patients was 46 years and 45 years for disease duration of 1-10 years and with <1 year respectively.

Upon analysis of the duration of disease in relation to gender, following results were obtained:

Most of the male patients (46 male patients comprising of 45.1% of the male population) had a disease duration of 11-20 years. 29 male patients (28.4% of the male population) had disease duration of 21-30 years.16 male patients (15.7% of the male population) had disease duration of 31-40 years whereas 5 female patients (4.9% of the male population) had disease duration of ???41 years. 4 patients (3.9% of the male population) had a disease duration of 1-10 years whereas 2 patients (2.0% of the male population) had a disease duration of <1 year.

Most of the female patients (57 male patients comprising of 45.6% of the female population) had a disease duration of 11-20 years. 50 female patients (40% of the female population) had disease duration of 21-30 years.11 female patients (8.8% of the female population) had disease duration of 31-40 years whereas 3 female patients (2.4% of the female population) had disease duration of ???41 years. 2 patients (1.6% of the female population) had a disease duration of 1-10 years whereas 2 patients (1.6% of the female population) had a disease duration of <1 year.

Thus most of the total study population (103 patients comprising of 45.4% of the total study population) had a disease duration of 11-20 years. 79 patients (34.8% of total study population) had disease duration of 21-30 years.27 patients (11.9% of the total population) had disease duration of 31-40 years whereas 8 patients (3.5% of the female population) had disease duration of ???41 years. 6 patients (2.6% of the total population) had a disease duration of 1-10 years whereas 4 patients (1.8% of the total population) had a disease duration of <1 year.

p-value = 0.235 which means in-significant difference.

Comparison of the duration of diabetes mellitus among male and female patients showed that the percentages of the female patients were higher than in male patients in the duration group between 11-20 yrs (45.60 % vs. 45.1%) and 21-30 yrs (40.0% vs. 28.4%) while the percentages of the male patients were higher than in female patients in the diabetics with duration < 1year (2% vs. 1.60% ), in patients with duration of diabetes between 1-10 yrs (3.9 % vs. 1.60% ), between 31-40 yrs (15.7 % vs. 8.80%), and in group having diabetes > 41 yrs (4.9% vs. 2.4% ).

Analysis of the type of treatment for diabetes mellitus in total patients showed that 160 patients (70.5%) were on insulin therapy; 42 patients (18.5%) were on oral hypoglycemic; 10 patients (4.4%) were on insulin and oral hypoglycemic; 10 patients (4.4%) were taking no treatment. 3 patients (1.3%) were on dietary control and 2 patients (0.9%) were on other treatment like hakeem medication.

Upon gender analysis for the type of treatment, it was found that 68 male patients ( 66.7% of the male population) were on insulin therapy; 19 patients (18.6%) were on oral hypoglycemics; 7 male patients (6.9% of the male population) were on insulin + oral hypoglycemic; 4 males (3.9% of the male population) were taking no treatment.2 patients(2.0% of the male population) were on dietary control and 2 patients (2.0% of the male population) were on other treatment like hakeem medication.

Among female patients, 92 female patients (73.6% of the female population) were on insulin therapy; 23 patients (18.4%) were on oral hypoglycemics; 3 female patients (2.4% of the female population) were on insulin + oral hypoglycemic; 6 females (4.8% of the female population) were taking no treatment. one patients (0.8% of the female population) was on dietary control. No female patient was found to be taking other type of treatment.

Upon comparison of the male and female patients, it was observed that the percentages of male patients were higher than female patients in the treatment group who were on diet control (2.0 % vs. 0.80%); on oral hypoglycemics only (18.6% vs. 18.4%); on both insulin and oral hypoglycemics (6.9% vs. 2.40%) and on other treatments like hakeem medications ( 2.00 % and 0.00 ) while the percentages of female patients were higher than male patients in those who on insulin (73.6% vs. 66.7 % ) and no treatment at all (4.8% vs.3.9%).

On Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument Scoring, it was seen that out of the total patients, 6 patients (2.6% of the study population) had score 0; 16 patients (7.0%) had score 1; 44 patients (19.4%) had score 2; 43 patients (18.9%) had score 3; 41 patients (18.1%) had score 4; 36 patients (15.9%) had score 5 and 41 patients (18.1%) had score 6.

The cumulative percentages for score 0.00, 1.00, 2.00, 3.00, 4.00, 5.00 and 6.00 were 2.6, 9.7, 29.1, 48.0, 66.1, 81.0 and 100.0 respectively.

Mean Michigan Neuropathy Score of the total study population was 3.6256??1.66586 with a standard error was .11057 and a 95% C.I of 3.4077 for the lower bound and 3.8434 for the upper bound. The median of Michigan Neuropathy Score was 4.0000. Michigan Neuropathy Score had a range of 6.00 with the minimum being 0.00 and maximum 6.00.

On further analysis of Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument Scoring in relation to gender it was observed that the mean MNSI score among male population was 3.5686??1.69162, with a standard error of .16750 and a 95% C.I of 3.2364 for the lower bound and 3.9009 for the upper bound.

The mean MNSI score for the female population was 3.6720??1.64991, with a standard error of .14757 and a 95% C.I of 3.3799 for the lower bound and 3.9641 for the upper bound.

p value 0.643 i.e. insignificant difference.

The mean Michigan Neuropathy Screening Instrument Scoring was also analyzed with respect to duration of diabetes mellitus. It was observed that the mean MNSI score was 3.5, 2.4,3.65 ,3.6, 3.9 and 4.5 for the disease duration of <1 year, 1-10 years, 11-20 years, 21-30 years, 31-40 years and ???41 years respectively.

The Semmes Weinstein Monofilament test Testing was analyzed separately for the right and left foot.

## Right Foot Monofilament Testing:

Most of the patients (128 patients, comprising 56.4% of the total study population) had a score of 10.00. 22 patients (9.7%) had a score of 0. One patient (0.4%) had score of 1; 3 patients(1.3%) had score 2; 5 patients (2.2%) had score 3; 5 patients (2.2%) had monofilament score 4; 7 patients (3.1%) had score 5; 9 patients (4%) had score 6; 12 patients (5.3%) had score 7; 29 patients(12.8%) had score 8 and 6 patients (2.6%) had a score of 9.

For right foot, the cumulative percentages for monofilament test score 0.00, 1.00, 2.00, 3.00, 4.00, 5.00, 6.00, 7.00, 8.00, 9.00 and 10.00 were 9.7, 10.1, 11.5, 13.7, 15.9, 18.9, 22.9, 28.2, 41.0 and 43.6 respectively.

The mean monofilament testing score for the study population for right foot was 7.8458??3.25441 while the median was 10.0000. Standard error was 0.21600 and a 95% C.I of 7.4202 for the lower bound and 8.2715 for the upper bound. The minimum score was 0.00 and maximum was 10.00 with a range of 10.00.

The mean monofilament testing score (right foot) was further analyzed in relation to gender:

Mean score for male population was 7.6275??3.14634, with standard error of .31153 and a 95% CI of 7.0095 for the lower bound and 8.2455 for the upper bound(Minimum score=0.00, Maximum=10.00).

Mean score for female population was 8.0240??3.34197, with standard error of .29892and a 95% CI of 7.4324for the lower bound and 8.6156for the upper bound (Minimum score=0.00, Maximum=10.00).

p- value was 0.362 which was in significant difference.

The mean monofilament testing score (right foot) with respect to duration of diabetes was also analyzed. The study population with a duration of diabetes of 21-30 years had highest mean monofilament score i.e. 8.2 followed by those with a disease duration of <1 year i.e. 8. Patients with disease duration of ???41 years had lowest monofilament score i.e. 6.8. Rest of the population had means scores of 7.65, 7.9 and 7.2 with disease duration of 1-10 years, 11-20 years and 31-40 years respectively.

155 patients had normal sensations in their right foot, 50 patients had reduced sensation while 22 patients had no sensation their right foot.

Descriptive statistics of age (years) in relation to interoperation of monofilament testing (right foot) had been analyzed.

Mean age with normal sensation was 51.0581 ?? 9.24011, with standard error of 0.74218 and a 95% C.I of 49.5919 for the lower bound and 52.5242 for the upper bound. (Minimum score = 40, Maximum = 80).

Mean age with reduced sensation was 56.5 ?? 10.4007, with standard error of 1.47087 and a 95% C.I of 53.5442 for the lower bound and 59.4558 for the upper bound. (Minimum score = 40, Maximum = 90).

Mean age with absent sensation was 54.2727 ?? 9.59257, with standard error of 2.04514 and a 95% C.I of 50.0196 for the lower bound and 58.5258 for the upper bound. ( Minimum score = 40, Maximum = 70).

Total mean age in years in relation to interpretation of monofilament testing (right foot) was 52.5683 ?? 9.76985, with standard error of 0.64845 and a 95% C.I of 51.2905 for the lower bound and 53.8461 for the upper bound. (Minimum score = 40, Maximum = 90).

p ??? value was 0.0000 which was significant difference.

When monofilament test result (right foot) was analyzed with respect to gender, 62 males (60.8 % of the total male population) and 93 females (74.4 % of the total female population) had normal sensation; 33 males (32.4 % of the total male population) and 17 females (13.6 % of the total female population) had reduced sensation and 7 males (6.9 % of the male population) and 15 females (12.0 % of the female population) had absent sensation.

In other words, monofilament test result (right foot) showed that in total 155 patients (68.3 %) had normal sensation; 50 patients (22.0 %) had reduced sensation and 22 patients (9.7 %) had absent sensation.

The interpretation of monofilament testing was analyzed in relation to duration of diabetes in the right foot.

Among the subset of patients who had normal sensation, most of the patients (69 patients) had disease duration of 11-20 years, followed by those who had disease duration of 21-30 years (59 patients). 15 patients had disease duration of 31-40 years. 2, 5 and 4 patients who had normal sensation in right foot had duration of <1 year, 1-10 years and ??? 41 years respectively.

Among the subset of patients who had reduced sensation in right foot, most of the patients (23 patients) had disease duration of 11-20 years, whereas 14 patients had diabetes duration of 21-30 years. Frequency of patients with disease duration of < one year, 1-10 years, 31-40 years and > 41 years was 1, 0, 8 and 4 respectively.

Frequency of patients with absent sensation by monofilament test (right foot) having duration of diabetes <1 year, 1-10 years, 11-20 years, 21-30 years, 31-40 years and ???41 years was 0, 1, 11, 6, 4 and 0 respectively.

P value was 0.433 which showed in significant difference.

## Left Foot Monofilament Testing

Most of the patients (127 patients, comprising 55.9%% of the total study population) had a monofilament test score of 10 in left foot ; 21 patients (9.3%) had a score of 0.00; 3 patients (1.3%) had score of 1.00; 2 patients(0.9%) had score 2; 4 patients(1.8%) had score 3; 4(1.8%) patients had monofilament score 4; 9 patients(4%) had score 5.00; 9 patients (4%) had score 6.00; 12(5.3%) patients had score 7.00; 30 patients(13.2%) had score 8 and 6 patients(2.6%) had score of 9.

For left foot, the cumulative percentages for monofilament test score 0.00, 1.00, 2.00, 3.00, 4.00, 5.00, 6.00, 7.00, 8.00, 9.00 and 10.00 were 9.3, 10.6, 11.5, 13.2, 15.0, 18.9, 22.9, 28.2, 41.4 and 44.1 respectively.

The mean monofilament testing score for the study population for left foot was 7.8502 ?? 3.23484 while the median was 10.0000. Standard error was 0.21470 and a 95% C.I of 7.4271 for the lower bound and 8.2733 for the upper bound. The minimum score was 0.00 and maximum was 10.00 with a range of 10.00.

The mean monofilament testing score (left foot) was further analyzed in relation to gender:

Mean score for male population was 7.6471 ?? 3.09150, with standard error of .30610 and a 95% CI of 7.0398 for the lower bound and 8.2543 for the upper bound. (Minimum score=0.00, Maximum=10.00).

Mean score for female population was 8.0160 ?? 3.35045, with standard error of .29967and a 95% CI of 7.4229 for the lower bound and 8.6091 for the upper bound. (Minimum score=0.00, Maximum=10.00).

The mean monofilament testing score (right foot) with respect to duration of diabetes was also analyzed. The study population with a duration of diabetes of 21-30 years had highest mean monofilament score i.e. 8.2 followed by those with a disease duration of <1 year i.e. 8. Patients with a disease duration of ???41 years had lowest monofilament score i.e. 6.8. Rest of the population had means scores of 7.65, 7.9 and 7.2 with disease duration of 1-10 years, 11-20 years and 31-40 years respectively.

157 patients (69.2% of the total study population) had normal sensations in their left foot, 49 patients (21.6% of the total study population) had reduced sensation while 21 patients (9.3% of the total study population) had no sensation their left foot.

Descriptive statistics of age (years) in relation to interpretation of monofilament testing (left foot) had been analyzed.

Mean age with normal sensation was 51.1083 ?? 9.19140, with standard error of 0.73355 and a 95% C.I of 49.6593 for the lower bound and 52.5573 for the upper bound. (Minimum score = 40, Maximum = 80).

Mean age with reduced sensation was 56.7345 ?? 10.57272, with standard error of 1.51039 and a 95% C.I of 53.6979 for the lower bound and 59.7715 for the upper bound. (Minimum score = 40, Maximum = 90).

Mean age with absent sensation was 53.7619 ?? 9.51790, with standard error of 2.07698 and a 95% C.I of 49.4294 for the lower bound and 58.0944 for the upper bound. ( Minimum score = 40, Maximum = 70).

Total mean age in years in relation to interpretation of monofilament testing (left foot) was 52.5683 ?? 9.76985, with standard error of 0.64845 and a 95% C.I of 51.2905 for the lower bound and 53.8461 for the upper bound. (Minimum score = 40, Maximum = 90).

p ??? value was 0.0000 which was significant difference.

When monofilament test result (left foot) was analyzed with respect to gender, 63 males (61.8% of the total male population) and 94 females (75.2% of the total female population) had normal sensation; 33 males (32.4% of the total male population) and 16 females (12.8% of the total female population) had reduced sensation and 6 males (5.9% of the male population) and 15 females (12.0% of the female population) had absent sensation. In other words, monofilament test result (left foot) showed that in total 157 patients (69.2 %) had normal sensation; 49 patients (21.6 %) had reduced sensation and 21 patients (9.3 %) had absent sensation.

The interpretation of monofilament testing was analyzed in relation to duration of diabetes.

Among the subset of patients who had normal sensation, most of the patients (70 patients) had disease duration of 11-20 years, followed by those who had disease duration of 21-30 years (60 patients). 15 patients had disease duration of 31-40 years. 3, 5 and 4 patients had duration of <1 year, 1-10 years and ??? 41 years respectively.

Among the subset of patients who had reduced sensation, most of the patients (22 patients) had disease duration of 11-20 years, whereas 14 patients had diabetes duration of 21-30 years. Frequency of patients with disease duration of < one year, 1-10 years, 31-40 years and > 41 years was 1, zero, 8 and 4 respectively.

Frequency of patients with absent sensation by monofilament test (right foot) having duration of diabetes <1 year, 1-10 years, 11-20 years, 21-30 years, 31-40 years and ???41 years was zero, 1, 11, 5, 4 and zero respectively.

The mean result of monofilament test in both left and right foot is that 68.75% of the patients had normal sensation, 21.8% had reduced sensation and 9.5% had absent sensation in their feet.