What Is Acetone Poisoning Biology Essay

INTERNATIONAL MEDICAL UNIVERSITY

MALAYSIA

Chemical Poisoning- Acetone

Semester 2 / 2013

Name : Lee Hui Leng

Student ID: PC0912032471

Course : Bachelor of Science (Hons)

Pharmaceutical Chemistry

Lecturer :

Index

Chemistry of Acetone………………………………………………….……………………..…….3

Uses of Acetone….....................................................................................3

What is Acetone Poisoning……………………………………………………….………4

Who’s at Risk………………………………………………….…………………………...…....4

Kinetics and Metabolism…….……………………………………………………..………4-5

Symptoms of Acetone Poisoning…..………………………………………………………….5

Sources and Routes of Exposure…………………………………………………

Health Effects of Acute/ Short-Term Exposure………………………………………..

Health Effects of Acute/ Short-Term Exposure…….………………………….………

Safety Precaution/ Prevention……………………………………………………………………

What Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) is needed………………………………

References………………………………………………………….…..…………………………………8

Chemistry of Acetone:

Acetone also known as dimethyl ketone, beta-ketopropane or 2-propan-2-one is the basic representative of the ketone. It has melting point at -95.4oC and boiling point at 56.53oC. It has an estimated density of 0.819 at 0oC. It is able to soluble in aqueous solvent such as water, ether, ethanol and others. At the same time, acetone itself also serves as an important solvent. One of the well known household use of acetone is it works as the active ingredient in nail polish remover and paint thinner. Acetone is also used to make drugs, plastic, fibers and other chemicals. Acetone is a colorless volatile liquid which easily ignited in liquid for vapor forms. It also has sweet order and distant ignition while sometimes flashback is possible. Inhalation of the acetone vapor may cause drowsiness and dizziness. It cause moderate or severe irritant if contact with eyes and skin.

Uses of Acetone:

Acetone mainly used as a solvent and quarter of them consumed as acetone cyanohydrins, a precursor to methyl methacrylate.

Acetone is a good solvent for manufacture of plastics and synthetic fibers. It is used for thinning the polyester resin, cleaning tools used with it and dissolving two part epoxies and superglue before they harden [2]. Pharmaceutical industry used acetone as a solvent and as a denaturant to indenatured alcohol. Meanwhile it also present as an excipient in some pharmaceutical drugs.

Acetone is a chemical intermediate that used to synthesis methyl methacrylate. It begins with the conversion of acetone to acetone cynohydrin. Acetone also used as a polar, aprotic solvent in many organic reactions in the laboratory.

In the fields of medical and dermatology, dermatologist use acetone with alcohol to peer dry skin in the acne treatment. While in the domestic field, acetone is the primary substance in cleaning agent such as nail polish remover. It acts as a superglue remover and able to remove residue from glass. Acetone can be use to remove skin adhesive from the netting of wigs and moustaches by immersing the item in an acetone bath, then removing the softened glue residue with a stiff brush [2].

Other uses of acetone included:

Lacquers for automotive or furniture finishes

Cellulose acetate films and fibers

Photographic films and plates casting

Coating and links

General purpose cements

Degreasing and degumming agents

Resin thinners and clean up operations

What is acetone poisoning?

Acetone poisoning occurs when the liver is not able to break down a large extra amount of acetone in the body. The body is able to handle an amount of acetone up to 200ml without serious consequences. This is because the liver is able to break down acetone into chemicals which usable by the body. Acetone poisoning can be caused by metabolic disease, chemical overexposure or starving. The body tends to have more acetone when a person is on a low-fat diet.

Who’s At Risk?

Workplace exposure for example those who work in an acetone or phenol manufacturing facility or through evaporation in various industrial and consumer product application are having potential to expose to acetone. Basically people who works with acetone in acetone manufacturing facilities is lower because the process, storage and handling operations are closely monitor in daily progress. The Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) permissible exposure limit (PEL) is 1,000 part per million (ppm) per an 8-hours time-weighted average (TWA). [3] The American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienist (ACGIH) Threshold Limit Valus (TLVs®) are 500 pp, 8-hour TWA and 750 ppm for short-term exposure limit (STEL) around 15 minutes. [3]

Exposure of consumer who use the products which containing acetone is highly variable depending on the products used and circumstances they use the products. Exposure of the majority of consumers to commercial acetone sources is likely to be infrequent and of short duration. [3] Exposure could occur through the use of acetone in personal care items or in lacquers and paint. [3] Work in a well-ventilated area can prevent exposure to vapors acetone in paint and lacquers.

Acetone is environmental releases. Around 97% of the acetone released to the atmosphere comes from natural sources such as decomposing of vegetation and forest fires. Man-made releases of acetone to the atmosphere are comparatively small.

Acetone can create a flammable headspace at low level of acetone even only 1% of acetone is found in water. Acetone can react vigorously with some oxidizing agents for instance sodium hydroxide (NaOH). Suitable emergency response personnel should be called for large spills from industrial. The combustion products are carbon dioxide (CO2), water (H2O) and carbon monoxide (CO).

Kinetics and metabolism

The body breaks down of fats into organic molecule called acetone or ketone. The process is by the decarboxylation of ketone bodies. Ketone contains acetone and travel throughout the body in the bloodstream until they reached the liver for breaking down. Different dietary patterns including prolonged fasting and high fat low carbohydrate dieting can produce ketosis in which acetone is formed in the body tissue. Alcoholism and diabetes can lead to acetone poisoning when an abnormally high amount of acetone is present in body which called as ketoacidosis, an uncontrollable ketosis that lead to sharp and death is possible by increasing the acidity of the bloods. Diabetes mellitus (type 1 and 2 are metabolic diseases that can cause ketoacidosis. During a prolonged starvation, the body’s carbohydrates stores are no longer sufficient and the body will begin to breaks down fats into acetones. The liver not able to metabolise for large amount of acetone and the blood acetone level will grow dangerously high. Other than the living style will cause the acetone poisoning, overexposure to specific paints in closed space and accidently ingestion of nail polish remover can also lead to acetone poisoning.

Acetone is highly soluble in water. It can be found in water and soil. At the same time, it can evaporate rapidly. Once they come in the atmosphere, it has a 22-day half-life and UV light can degrade acetone via photolysis. Acetone can spread slowly in soil, animals, or waterways since it might consumed by cmicroorganisms. The LD50 (lethal dose) of acetone for fish is 8.3mg/L of water over 96 hours and it environmental half-life is about 1-10 days. [2] Acetone may pose a significant risk of oxygen depletion in aquatic system due to the microbial consumption. [2] Acetone is highly flammable in both liquid and vapor forms thus need to avoid from open flames, sparks, static charge, heat and other ignition sources. It can react violently with oxidizing agents like peroxides, organic acid for example acetic acid, strong reducing agent for instance hydrides. On the other hand it is not corrosive to aluminium, alloys and carbon steel.

Symptoms of Acetone Poisoning:

In a mild acetone poisoning, the person may find some of the symptoms like headache, slurred speech, lethargic state or dizziness. During a sever acetone poisoning, even though it is rare, the symptoms include coma, deep stupor, and in rare cases, death.

The following table shows the symptoms that may be found on different body system when a person was exposed to acetone poisoning:

Body Systems

Symptoms

Cardiovascular system

Low blood pressure

Gastrointestinal system

Nausea

Pain in belly area (abdomen)

Person may have a fruity odor

Sweet taste in mouth

Vomiting

Nervous system

Acting as if drunk

Coma

Drowsiness

Stupor

Respiratory system

Difficulty breathing

Slowed breathing rate

Shortness of breath

Urinary system

Increased need to urinate

Sources and route of exposure:

The sources of acetone mainly come from the acetone containing products being manufacture and consumed by consumers. Workers who involve in acetone pharmaceutical industrial for production of acetone or manufacture products containing acetone have higher chance to expose to acetone. The source of acetone is not always come from the external. Acetone is produce when the body breaks down fat, so higher acetone levels in the body when having a low-fat diet. Natural food resources such as onions, cauliflower, tomatoes, grapes, milk, beans, cheese, peas, as well as mother’s milk are found to have acetone and initiate production of acetone in the body.

Acetone is absorbed rapidly by ingestion, inhalation and dermal exposure. Inhalation adsorption is the most common route of exposure which has 70% to 80% range. Other than the three routes of exposure, acetone might contact with the eyes in an accident or through the acetone vapor in the air. The effects of acetone poisoning are depending on the routes and period of time the person being exposed in such condition. Routes of exposure can be inhalation, dermal or skin contact, eye contact or even ingestion

Health Effects of Acute / Short-Term Effects

Mild nervous system effects that can goes off after exposure ceased were seen in humans who exposed to concentration of acetone of 500 ppm in air and greater. Accidental poisonings reports similar nervous system effects of sluggishness and drowsiness are not last for long time. Exposure less than 500 ppm will not cause any serious health effects.

Inhalation

Human, who exposed to less than 500 ppm of acetone through inhalation will experienced irritation of the nose and throat. Some other symptoms may include headache, nausea, dizziness, drowsiness and confusion.

Skin contact

Acetone may cause mild irritation if contacted with skin. Acetone can absorb through the skin but harmful effects are not expected.

Eye contact

Eye irritation can happen even though the acetone is just in a vapor forms if the person work with acetone without any safety goggles. Some of the symptoms eye contact includes sore, red eyes and tearing.

Ingestion

It is not harmful if only small amount of acetone being ingested but it can cause drowsiness.

Health Effects of Chronic / Long-Term Effects

People who exposed by to 500 ppm to 1000 ppm of acetone for six hours per day or more are grouped in chronic effects. Conclusion cannot be drawn from the limited studies available. [5] long-term exposure might cause damage to kidneys, liver and nerves as well.

Inhalation

At high concentration of acetone being inhaled can harm the nervous system. The symptoms are respiratory tract irritation and feeling loss of strength. For a person with severe exposure can cause unconsciousness. Breathing in 1000 ppm can also caused irritation of the eyes

Skin contact

When the skin exposed to acetone for long time can cause dry, red, cracked skin which also called as dermatitis. Acetone that absorbed by skin will go into blood stream and travel to the brain and lungs thus having the same symptoms as inhalation and ingestion exposure.

Eye contact

Vapor also irritates the eyes and moderate or severe irritation that lead to sore, red eyes and tearing.

Ingestion

It can cause effects as described for inhalation if large amounts of acetone are ingested.

Safety Precaution/ Prevention

Some of the first aids are concern to prevent further exposure to acetone and prevent acetone from any further reaction with other materials.

Inhalation

Take precautions to prevent any sources of ignition. Move the victims to ventilated space for fresh air. Call a Poison Centre or doctor if the victim feels unwell.

Skin Contact

Remove all contaminated clothing, shoes and leather goods for example watchbands and belts. Flush contaminated skin with lukewarm, gently flowing water for 5 minutes. Seek for medical consultant if the pain persists. Clean all the contaminated clothing, shoes and leather goods before reuse or dispose it safely.

Eye Contact

Flush the contaminated eye(s) with lukewarm, gently flowing water for 15-20 minutes and holding the eyelid(s) open immediately. Remove contact lens if it present. Notice not to rinse contaminated water into the unaffected eye or onto the face. See a doctor if irritation or pain persists.

Ingestion

Ask victim to rinse mouth with water. Call a Poison Centre or doctor if the victim feels unwell.

What Personal Protective Equipment (PPE) is needed when working with acetone?

Eye/Face Protection

Wear chemical safety goggles and face shield when contact is possible.

Skin Protection

Avoid prolonged or repeated skin contact with acetone. Wear full chemical protective clothing included gloves, aprons, and boots. Some of the suitable materials for glove, apron and boots are butyl rubber, Barrier® (PE/PA/PE), Silver Shield/4H® (PE/EVAL/PE), Tychem® BR/LV, Tychem® Responder), Trellchem® HPS, Trellchem® VPS.

Respiratory Protection

When it is up to 2500 ppm, wear an air-purifying respirator with an organic vapor cartridge that approved by National Institute of Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH) or wear a NIOSH approved self-contained breathing apparatus (SCBA) or supplied air respirator.

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