What Are The Socio Economic Crimes Criminology Essay

Introduction

Law is a system of rules and procedures which are imposed through social foundations to govern behavior amongst society. Laws are made by governments; specifically by their legislatures. The constructions of laws themselves are influenced by the constitution and the rights encoded in there. The law shapes politics, economies and society in countless ways and serves as a social mediator of relations between people. When there is offense done to the law, it is called criminality. Criminality is also dealt with the laws that are made by the legislature itself.

Why did I choose this topic?

I chose the topic as nowadays, the rate of crimes has reached its heights. People are tricked and threatened for almost every second all around the world. The social and economic crime rates have increased in the past years by a great deal. The consequences of not taking this into notice can be portentous.

It is necessary to aware the people of the crimes that occur so that they don’t fall for such a trap. The objective for such the research is also to aware myself of the transgressions going on around the world. To stop the crimes, it is important for the people to be alert and responsive. I look forward for a better world.

Global Perspective

There are so many different types of social and economic crimes. Some of the social crimes are murder, rape, man slaughter, child labor and human inequalities while some of the economic crimes are forgery, grand theft, organized frauds, credit card frauds, real estate frauds / mortgage fraud and corruption. United States is the country with the maximum number of crimes (11,877,218 crimes per month) followed by United Kingdom (6,523,706 crimes per month).

USA is known for its crime rate. For the first time in two decades, the crime rate gone above 18% with assault being the major crime in the country. In every 5 seconds, a crime is committed in Whales and England. There are some crimes that are practiced since the 18th century. Child labor and racial discrimination are two of them. In USA, Africans are treated in a very ruthless manner. They are assaulted and killed due to their race. Africa has the highest number of murders (169,105 murders).

Economic crime is another major concern all around the world. Kenya has the highest occurrence of economic crimes in the Global Survey. Organized crime threatens human security and hinders economic and political stability. Globalizations that expand trade, communications and information, have first- time reached into the lives and affairs of ordinary people, multinational companies and governments. The cross-border flow is the cause for criminal activities, corruption and tax evasion and is estimated to be over US$ 1 trillion. $3 billion worth money was lost as a result of criminals swiping copyright protected digital copies of music, movies, software and games and distributing them through websites, chat rooms and mass e- mails.

Secretary-General, Ban Ki-moon said at the occasion of International Anti-Corruption Day on 9 December 2009 that it the World’s vulnerable who suffer "first and worst" by corruption such as the theft of public money or foreign aid for private gain. Mr. Ban notes, however, that corruption "is not some vast impersonal force" but "the result of personal decisions, most often motivated by greed." 

The African government has taken a huge step towards protecting its country from crimes. The South African government's 1998 White Paper on Safety and Security states that social crime prevention aims to reduce the social, economic and environmental factors to particular types of crime. Preventing Violence Against Women and Youth in Peru (2011-2014) is another project which fights for the rights of women. The United Nations Convention against Corruption (UNCAC) is the instrument that works against corruption. The UNCAC covers many different forms of corruption, such as trading in influence, abuse of power, and various acts of corruption in the private sector. 1 September 2011 - UNODC has launched a web-based anti-corruption portal known as TRACK (Tools and Resources for Anti-Corruption Knowledge). The TRACK portal brings together legal and non-legal information on anti-corruption and asset recovery enabling Member States, the anti-corruption community and the general public to access this information in a central location.http://www.childlineindia.org.in/images/cases-studies-illustrations/CHILD%20LABOUR.jpg

National Perspective

From a national perspective, India is a very crime driven country. Kerala is one of the most dangerous states in the India when we talk of crimes. It has a crime rate of 424.1. Delhi is a city for crimes though being the capital. Juvenile delinquency is on its rise in the capital. Cases of girls getting raped and teens committing murders are everyday news and people find it common nowadays. "30-40% of young criminals are drug addicts," says Amod Kanth, general secretary at the Prayas Institute of Juvenile Justice. The Arunachal Pradesh State Commission for Women (APSCW) states that over 60 cases of rape and about 160 cases of other crime against women were reported in one year. News of foreign tourists being sexually assaulted is reported recently. An American was molested in Pushkar, a British journalist raped in Goa; Canadian girls attacked in Kumarakom are some of the activities that took place recently.

The Dalits (also known as Untouchables, Harijans, or Scheduled Castes) have been poor, deprived of basic human rights, and treated as social inferiors in India. They face economic, social, cultural, and political discrimination in the name of caste. Dalits lose their land and the reason they get is "development". The Dalits and the upper caste landlords have arguments regarding the use of common pastures and farming in community lands in villages.

Child labour is also a significant problem in India. It is estimated that there are 12.59 million child labors in India. M.V. Foundation in Andhra Pradesh found nearly 400,000 children, mostly girls toiling for 14-16 hours a day in cottonseed production across the country of which. 40% of the labour in a precious stone cutting sector is children.

The government has forced laws which save the rights of innocent people. Article 23 of the Constitution is a law against human trafficking. Articles 330 and 333 allow Union and state legislatures to preserve seats for members of the Scheduled Castes and Scheduled Tribes (native people or adivasis) based on their population. Ministry of Women and Child Development (MWCD) deals with prevention of trafficking in women and children for commercial sexual exploitation. It is the primary law relating to juveniles who are in conflict with law as well as children in need of care and protection. The Act seeks to provide care/protection to children by catering to a child’s development needs, adopting a child friendly environment and keeping the child’s "best interest" in mind.

As Indian Industries goes global, economic crime is rising as a threat. When the companies in India expand and are known across the world, they are exposed to frauds occurring in different markets.

India is well known for corruption and bribery. Unfortunately, corruption and bribery is one area that reported an increase in the instance of fraud. Companies in India have reported to be suffering direct losses of US $1.5 million (INR 6 crore) due to fraud. The cost of supervising fraud (including legal investigation, stakeholder management and public relations costs) is also very high. The Global Survey asked a group of 1500 experts about risks and challenges in the emerging markets. Surprisingly, 89% of the experts listed lack of faith in the legal environment and high rate of corruption as a matter of worry in India. Economic criminals have always eyed the nationalized and cooperative banks and stole off thousands of crores by having criminal connection with the bank. Insurance companies are also not left out. Instances of deliberately setting fire to the insured goods, go-down, factory or making more than one claim on the basis of the same accident are quite common. Money laundering is a process of cleaning dirty money with the objective of hiding its source and enabling it to be used later in a legal form. This is also one of the many common crimes in India.

Here is a table which states the different crimes and its consequences:-

Sr. no

Economic crimes

Acts of legislation

1

Tax evasion

Income tax act

2

Illicit trafficking of contraband goods

Customs act 1962

CPFEPOSA, 1974

3

Evasion of excise duty

Central excise and salt acct, 1944

4

Cultural Object’s theft

Antiquity and art treasures act, 1972

5

Money laundering

Foreign exchange regulations act,1973

6

Foreign contribution manipulations

Foreign contribution act,1976

7

Land hijacking/ Real estate fraud

IPC

The Prevention of Money Laundering Act (PML), 2002 was passed by the Parliament of India in

December 2003. The PML Act has three main objectives:

• To prevent, combat and control money laundering

• To confiscate and seize the property obtained from the laundered money; and

• To deal with any other issue connected with money laundering in India.

The Reserve Bank of India (Central Bank for the country), has issued orders to be strictly followed by the Banks about the standard practices under the ‘Know Your Customer’ (KYC) guidelines. The banks are obligatory to obtain all information necessary to create the identity of each new customer.

Personal Perspective

In my personal opinion, India is facing a major problem related to social and economic crimes. The government is not doing much about it. Bribes and corruption is one of the major "businesses" nowadays. Every person wants to be a politician to earn money. Psycho people are roaming freely on the streets of my state and the police are not doing anything about it. I feel afraid to move out of my house in the noon and midnight times. The government has got to prove to the new generation that they are here to help us otherwise our trust on them will break permanently.

I would like the government of India to take a step towards the end of corruption. Researchers say that if the total black money in India is used for the development and benefit for the country, India will be the next superpower. Delhi is India’s capital but crimes in Delhi are more than most of the states in India.

Criminal’s Perspective

Criminals are irresponsible, impulsive, self-centered, and driven by fear and anger. Criminals think and act differently than other people. The criminals commit crimes for revenge, self satisfaction, and sometimes unknowingly. Some of the criminals are raised in an environment where they get exposure to crimes at a very early age and it is considered a noble deed. Some of the criminals are mentally retarded and find pleasure and peace in committing crimes. Cesare Lombroso was an Italian criminologist who promoted the theory of ‘anthropological determinism’ that stated that criminality was inherited and that someone who is a "born criminal"' can be identified by physical defects, which confirmed him/her to be a criminal.

Victim’s Perspective

Most of the crime victims are afraid to file their complaint against a criminal. They are worried about their reputation in the matters of rape and murders. Some of the victims are badly assaulted that they don’t want to come before anyone in the future. Some of the economic victims don’t want to reveal their economic life to the world. A few victims do file a report and get a sufficient reply or an action.

Possible courses of action

The government needs to open educational centers for people who are psycho to prevent the birth of new criminals. Special hospitals should be opened to keep them. Citizens like me, should take a step forward and open the tear apart the corrupt government and then we’ll be able to see our country will progress like never before. It’s said that "charity begins at home", so first stop all the people who are discriminating around the neighborhood and then expand the awareness. The educated class should teach the illiterates about stopping child labour which is a very bad practice.

Future Scenario

The future of the

Personal Response

I can conclude from this that the world has become a very dangerous place to live in. though the governments are trying to protect its country to the maximum, criminals are not threatened by any kind of law or punishment. Some of the countries have succeeded in reducing crime rates but not stop crime. Dubai is one country where the crime rate is zero and I wish my country will achieve that stage in the near future.

Word Count:-

1938