Brand Repositioning Global Marketing Cultural Studies Essay
The article says that 25% advertisements employ some celebrity to endorse a product or brand. Celebrities are brought aboard to create positive ripples towards advertising and higher purchase intentions than a non-celebrity endorser. Marketers often believe that celebs increase audience attentiveness, make the ad memorable, credible, desirable, and add glamour to the product. The five advantages of employing celebrities to endorse products are mentioned in the article as follows:
• drawing attention
• crisis management
• brand repositioning
• global marketing
Short commercials make the ads more compelling and worth watching. The Web sites like youtube.com or metacafe.com, help the marketers to reach out to more of the target group faster
Many brands use the same celebrity in various geographies. The research suggests that the brand should understand whether the globally used celebrity fits with the cultural ethos of the nation .
2.4.5 The Relative Effectiveness of Celebrity Endorsement for Beauty, High and Low Involvement Products
Author: Irene Roozen, International Congress "Marketing Trends", Venetia, Italy
The article mentions a research done to identify the correlation between the brands and the celebrities that endorse them. The research tries to analyse the best and worst product-celebrity matches, respectively. The researchers tried to compare the advertisements with a picture of an anonymous person and advertisements without a celebrity or picture for high involvement products (a laptop), low involvement products (a candy bar) and beauty products.
For the low involvement product ‘candy bar’, the scores of the attitude towards the brand, the attitude towards the advertisement (for both components) and purchase intention are in all cases the highest for the advertisement with no model (no picture).
For the high involvement product ‘laptop’, research has shown that for technical products the expertise factor of the celebrity is a significantly more important factor. In case of the beauty product, it was found that a very attractive ‘sexy’ anonymous model could be at least as effective as very expensive celebrity.
The research results do not indicate that celebrity endorsement is effective. This result was also found for the advertisements with the endorsement of celebrities who were found to match best with the products at hand. These results, therefore, suggest that the considerable amounts invested in celebrity endorsement often go waste. The paper says that technical products focusing only on the product without using (non-) celebrity endorsers tries to levy on the cognitive aspects of the product and strikes a chord with the customers
2.4.6. Celebrity Endorsement: Advertising Agency Managers’ Perspective
The attitude of advertising agencies is very different as compared to a brand manager. This study provides another perspective to the celebrity endorsement strategy by using semi-structured in-depth interviews with twelve advertising agency managers.
The key issues which have been explored in the study include:
• managers’ reasons for utilising celebrities in marketing communications
• managers’ opinions on effectiveness of celebrity campaigns in terms of generating awareness, recall, positive attitudes towards advertising and brands, purchase intentions, and actual sales
• whether managers perceive there is an increasing usage of celebrities in marketing communications
• factors considered while selecting celebrity endorsers
• commonality of these considered factors’ importance within the UK and among other countries
• types of media used with celebrity campaigns
• manager’s view on utilising celebrities in integrated marketing communication campaigns
• managers’ opinion on international transferability of celebrity campaigns
• managers’ view on utilising multiple celebrities for a particular celebrity campaign
Fit with the advertising idea
Celebrity—Target audience match
Costs of acquiring the celebrity
Celebrity physical attractiveness
Celebrity prior endorsements
Whether celebrity is a brand user
Celebrity Equity membership status
2.4.7. Who Endorses Whom? Meaning Transfer in Celebrity Endorsement
Author: Elina Halonen-Knight and Leila Hurmerinta, Journal of Product & Brand Management
This paper investigates the symbiotic relationship between celebrity endorsement and brand alliances. The purpose of this research is to identify transfer of meanings and associations to the celebrity to find out whether celebrity endorsement can be considered a brand alliance.
The authors carried out a case study, and an analysis of negative publicity that emerged during an advertisement campaigns were transferred from a brand to a celebrity. These are illustrated by the diagram below:
The study showed that the meanings and brand equity were transferred from the brand to the celebrity. This also indicates that the negative attributes transferred to the celebrity endorser, thereby creating a brand alliance.
2.4.8. The Hazards of Celebrity Endorsements in the Age of Twitter
Authors: Knowledge at Wharton
In digital times a failed advertisement that involves a celebrity does not end only at the viewer’s end. It gets discussed on all platforms of social media thereby resulting in more bad publicity. The article talks about a similar advertisement featuring Brad Pitt that got humiliated by everyone. Sometimes, a badly designed marketing campaign and choice of wrong celebrities undermining their brand's message can ruin the campaign Celebrity endorsements are a time-honoured marketing tool. The theory is that borrowing some of a celebrity's star power will create both an awareness of, and an interest in, a given product. To some extent, the rise of the Internet has accentuated the value of celebrity endorsements. As marketers vie for a precious share of consumers' ever-shortening attention span, a big-name spokesperson can help a brand get noticed. Nielsen. Research proved that the celebrities are important to advertisers, but so are celebrities' fans on social media sites. It has been proveds that the 64% of American adults who follow a celebrity online also follow a brand, and that a celebrity follower is four times more likely to follow a brand than the average U.S. adult online. The Nielsen study also found that such fans are also more likely to offer advice and opinions to fellow online consumers.
These article suggest companies to be actively prepare for the potential of bad behaviour from their selected endorser before it taints their brand. A lot of companies should have 'social media control rooms' where they monitor the blogosphere and can intervene before something blows up. They can head off problems before they go viral.