Dependent And Independent Conditions Cultural Studies Essay

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Abstract

Dependent and independent conditions define the architecture and design of a building. We will analyze two architects and 4 buildings (2 per architect) to analyze these conditions in terms of money (economy), the client (user), and the cultural agenda (politics, government, people, and history). The example buildings will be the Kunsthal and CCTV HQ buildings by Rem Koolhaas, and the Tjibaou Cultural Center and Shard by Renzo Piano. After the analysis of these buildings I will provide my reasoning for supporting the dependent vs. the independent conditions.

Table of Contents

Introduction

Architects do not work in isolation. During the conceptual design, an architect needs to be perfectly aligned with the social, economic and political situations of the location where the building is to be located. Society cans often times resist certain architecture, and this is driven by the relationship between the architecture and society. So what does really define architecture? Is it the dependent or the independent conditions that make the difference to the architect, to the building and overall to the rest of the world?

I will frame my rationale by defining the main elements of the dependent and the independent conditions. The dependent conditions refer to those elements of architecture that need each other in order to create architectural structures, "from the initial sketch to the ultimate occupation of a building" [1] . The independent conditions are the individual components, such as the client, the architect, the economic elements and the culture, that work separately to create architecture.

The following architectural designs will be discussed; the Kunsthal and CCTV HQ from Rem Koolhaas, and the Tjibaou Cultural Center and The Shard from Renzo Piano. Koolhaas and Piano are two very important architects of our times since they both manage to create very iconic buildings that define the meaning of architecture within the parameters of the dependent and independent conditions. They accomplish that by creating shapes and functions of buildings to align with the elements of money (economy), the client (user), and the cultural agenda (politics, government, people, and history).

Dependent Conditions of Architecture

Dependency is everywhere in architecture [2] . An architect depends on the environment, the cultural agenda of the location, and the history of the local traditions. The client will guide the architect and align the architect’s thoughts with the project’s expectations. The shape and the function of the building, project the architect’s and client’s intentions about the building and the reason for its existence. In that regard, Jonathan Hill, indicates "The architect and the user both produce architecture, the former by design, and the latter by use" [3] .

Money as an element of a dependent condition

The client who maybe, an individual, a company or a government, defines the culture and the constraints of the building’s usage. Money as a dependent element is based on the client’s financial support. This, in relation to the skill of the architect chosen, can define the cost of the project. David Chappel indicates that "the architect acts as the client’s agent in spending money as in this case it may be substantial" [4] . "The amounts of money spend by the client; will depend on the skills and the efficiency of the architect" [5] . Depending on the reasons behind a project, politics may also play a critical economic role. Therefore, politics can define the shape and function of the building in order to create an environment that will accommodate the cultural identity of the place. In addition it will provide the conditions that allow the financial self-sustainability of the building, based on tourism, foreign companies and possibilities for future economic expansions. Finally, the global financial situations may have an impact to the finances of the project which may alter the client’s expectations.

The client as an element of a dependent condition

There is a strong dependency between the architect and the client. Jonathan Hill indicates that "There are two occupations of architecture: the activities of the architect and the actions of the user, the architect and the user both produce architecture, the former by design, the latter by use" [6] . So there is a need for immediate collaboration between those two. The architect and client need to work as a team, in order to accomplish the efficiency of the building, and decide the overall design of the building. Finally, the client represents the culture of the location and bridges the relationship of the building with the landscape.

The cultural agenda as an element of a dependent condition

The cultural agenda of a building has a direct impact on the building design. Tom Spector states about the architects that`` They must believe in the public’s right to influence decisions regarding the built environment- the inevitable outcome of public service-and, like or must find a way to stimulate the public concerns to the buildings" [7] . The client may require building a cultural icon, a symbol that defines the cultural identity of the people in order to increase tourism and economy. Thus, the culture plays a vital dependent role that defines the building, and the materials used.

Independent Conditions of Architecture

Independent conditions can change the architecture and could drive a change of forms and functions in terms of the design of a building. William Maker states that "we have the buildings which have different organic and inorganic shapes in the architecture; these different types of buildings can express the way that the independent architecture works" [8] . The independent conditions do not directly affect the design of a building since other reasons exist that drive the final goal of a building. Power and fame, could make the money, client and cultural conditions act as independent factors in the architecture of a building.

Money as an element of an independent condition

The economic elements are driven by politics, the local and foreign investments, and the architect’s skill. Politics can play a significant role in a building design. If there are political reasons for a building to exist, cost becomes irrelevant, which means that the goal is to project power or status, and money can be almost unlimited. Due to politics, the environment of a building, the function or even the form or shape can change, due to the client’s expectations. However, the ultimate question is who is going to benefit from the specific project. That in itself defines an independent condition, since the client is typically the first beneficiary that will make money, and can control other income sources of the building. Other sources may include tourism, or even foreign companies’ investments. However, these conditions create after effects for the peripheral economies [9] which also benefit, thus making money an independent condition of the project.

The client as an element of an independent condition

If the goal of a project is specific, such as political or power driven, the client could change, as long as the primary goal does not change. In these cases the client is acting as an independent condition for the success of the building. "Architecture can be considered the result of successful design collaboration between an enlightened architect and enlightened client" [10] . So the client, who acts as an independent factor, gives the original concept of the project to the architect and depends on the architect to take all the parameters in consideration to produce the expected result. "Architecture is a form of communication that connects the client and the architect, though neither the architect nor the client always follows the same thoughts or even rules in order to create architecture, and that makes them more independent from each other" [11] .

The cultural agenda as an element of an independent condition

Whenever an architect does not take into consideration the culture, is because the building is driving the future of the area and is typically seen in areas where the goal is to modernize an otherwise aged location. Hence the culture is acting as an independent condition for the design of the building.

The Kunsthal – A dependent project from Rem Koolhaas

Rem Koolhaas and his OMA designed a cultural concept in the city of Rotterdam [12] . Kunsthal literally means "Art Hall" and is located at the Museum Park neighborhood of the city of Rotterdam. The location is currently attracting thousands of people every year when before the construction of Kunsthal, Bilbao [13] – the area where it is located, was an industrial area with no tourism. The local government took the initiative to boost local and global tourism and did so by creating the Kunsthal. It is a project that perfectly defines the Dutch culture and identity. Based on that dependency, Koolhaas has created a project that is a continuation of its surroundings. The Kunsthal is a perfect example of urban architecture as it reflects the relationship between the building, the city, as well as the physical and cultural characteristics of the city which are apparent in the project itself. Koolhaas, being Dutch himself, understood the needs and the expectations of such project and designed the Kunsthal with this dependency in mind.

The Kunsthal [14] is not a typical museum but a "modernistic box" [15] that hosts temporary exhibitions. Koolhaas wanted to project the feeling that though the visitor was entering the museum, the building is still an extension of the natural exterior environment. The spiral pathway allows circulation and natural flow and promotes movement through the two levels of the building and the exhibition halls. The auditorium is a space where people can sit in plastic chairs but also connects with a ramp on the right to the garden ramp that leads to the top of the roof [16] . Ultimately, the effect combines exhibition halls connected with ramps to form a unique singularity with the building and the surrounding exterior environment. Koolhaas used inexpensive materials in a variety of surprising combinations to create unique architectural experiences when walking through the Kunsthal. This is apparent in every compartment such as the columns on the lower part of the building, which were designed as tree-trunks and are forming a unique extension of the natural landscape, bridging the external environment in the structure of the building. In doing so, he virtually eliminated the difference between the inside and outside spaces forming a unique continuum. It is thus evident, that the Kunsthal is dependent on the surrounding environment as well as the Dutch culture. The Dutch culture is defined by landscape spaces and water [17] . Koolhaas sought to bring the balance of the natural environment of the Dutch, to a structure that invited global attention. After all, the client – the local government, would ultimately benefit (from an investment standpoint) if the visitor experiences the ultimate Dutch culture by visiting Kunsthal. Was the local government the only body that benefited from Kunsthal? Did the public enjoy any monetary advantages from this project? Yes the public benefited probably not however through the local government, which invests back in the community to create better infrastructure to provide support for the populations that visit the area. Since the area flourished, the local businesses flourished, new businesses were created to serve and support the thousands of tourists every year. Therefore, there is a strong money dependency. The strong dependency with the surrounding environment is also evident from the transparent frontage on the north part which enables visitors to view the exterior green to the roof garden that reinforces the green landscape of the exterior surroundings.

Koolhaas utilized inexpensive materials for this project and therefore, the budget didn’t need to be high. The local government didn’t have to invest a significant budget and yet the return on their investment has being significant. Koolhaas has the skillset to blend natural elements and inexpensive material to construct the building. In this case the unique architectural design draws tourism which provides a return on the local government’s investment. Similar to how the culture depends on the user and the user depends on the building; the local government depends on the Kunsthal to create a project that is representative of their culture to the world. In Kunsthal the local government hired a local high skilled architect with the intention to improve the economy of the city by attracting tourism. It is very important to have a healthy partnership between the architect and the client. It is important because if the client’s expectation is different from the architects’ capabilities, the project will fail. In the case of Kunsthal, the government was looking to hire someone with great knowledge and understanding of the Dutch culture. The relationship between the architect and the client is fundamental, as it defines the opportunities, constraints and challenges of the projects. Was Koolhaas the only Dutch architect who could deliver this project successfully? Probably not, however he is the one who attracts attention and interest from the international community for all of his projects. Hiring him provided an opportunity for the local government to promote the economic development of the area, even before the completion of the project.

One might ask why this project is so impressive. Perhaps Koolhaas achieved to diminish the difference between the interior and the exterior, by bringing the natural environment in the building. Maybe because the spaces he created are simple yet so complex and maybe because it is such a strong representation of the Dutch culture. This also justifies the great numbers of tourists who visit Kunsthal. As Koolhaas mentioned, "I like to do things that on first sign have a degree of simplicity but show their complexity in a way they are used or at the second place" [18] . He also mentioned `` I would exploit the potentials of particular building type, and provide to the client with the maximum of function as well as intellectual stimulation" [19] . From the simple sliding doors to the entrance to the garden roof and the ramps that can be perceived as inflexible and less user friendly, Koolhaas has managed to attract the interest and the eyes of the world which accomplished the goal of the local government to promote Rotterdam, increase its revenues by the global tourism and create a sustainable economic environment for the local community.

The CCTV building - An independent project from Rem Koolhaas

CCTV is an independent project designed by OMA as a different style of architectural skyscraper. The Chinese public television, which is controlled by the Chinese government, was looking to develop a tall building that would host administration, news and broadcasting, program production and services office for the Chinese television. The building is composed of four basic elements: "the nine-story "Base", the two leaning Towers that slope at 6° in two directions, and the 9-13 story "Overhang", suspended 36 stories in the air. The public facilities are in a second building, the Television Cultural Center (TVCC), and both are linked to a third service building that houses major plant as well as security" [20] . Those three buildings would host the new CCTV headquarters with the widest coverage and greater authority in China. The building was constructed in Beijing’s Central Business District. This was an area where other skyscrapers were built or planned to be build, and the Chinese government was looking for a building which would be the landmark of the China’s emerging economic power. Why did China want to convey this message to the world? China had been isolated from the rest of the world, and as a non-democratic regime that is looking for an opportunity to open its doors to the Western World. In addition, it was the period of time when Beijing was being modernized and therefore, the structural developments were enormous, especially due to the fact that the city was looking to host the 2008 Olympics. The CCTV was part of a bigger plan of redesigning and redeveloping Beijing by developing functional architectural buildings while preserving historic buildings. CCTV became a building that represented the power and control of the Chinese government to the rest of the world. This building could accept foreign investments in order to sustain its economy. Consequently, the building was designed to project its concomitant power in the part of financial investments and be totally independent from other agencies. The political influence in this project is evident as the building is the representation of the dominance of the Chinese government. This building has the ability to control the ideas through the mass media, control the information that transmits to the people, and control the culture that broadcasts in to the outside world [21] . As the China’s state control organization said ``We have spent billions of dollars not only on the construction of this volumentary flagship building, but also on the expansion of facilities to launch respected international news organizations overseas" [22] . To accomplish opening up to the Western World, the government announced an international competition and invited architects to share their ideas. The government created a committee that would evaluate all concepts and it would hire the right architect. They were looking for an architect that could create a symbol that would utilize all surrounding buildings as background that would highlight CCTV, and found him in Koolhaas who ultimately won this competition.

Although he admitted, it would be a very challenging project due to his lack of knowledge of the culture and the language barrier, culture didn’t have much to do with the concept and structure of CCTV, China was looking to create a symbol of power, money, modernism and depart from the tradition to the global framework that the western society has mastered for years. CCTV was not a structure that would benefit the public of China or the surrounding areas, neither was the building that would generate revenue to advance and support the people. This would have been a dependent condition for the building but instead, it was a project managed from a government which operated in isolation and doesn’t necessarily benefit its own people, thus defining the independent condition. CCTV was not part of an effort to reduce the poverty rate in China (which is significantly higher for a country that manages billions of dollars) and would have been another dependent condition. In addition, the CCTV building was neither dependent on the culture nor the surroundings of the current location as we previously have seen with the Kunsthal, but rather the purpose was to be defined independently from the rest of the buildings, to ultimately drive how the area will be developed. CCTV was mainly a symbol of the government’s power. It is independent of the architect’s knowledge of the culture and language, but requires the architect to act more as a pioneer for the government to create the mega structure. Koolhaas in an interview to CNN indicated that "The total amount of diplomacy that was necessary, the constant negotiation with a different political environment, a different language, a different symbolism ... it required an unbelievable effort." [23] Therefore, there has been a significant amount of discussions with the government in order to come to a consensus of how this project would work to support the purpose for its creation. This was also evident by the fact that the Chinese Ministry of Construction, appointed an expert panel of 12 professors from around China to ensure the required building approvals and stability of the building was overseen and successful.

Koolhaas was attracted by the idea to re-invent a skyscraper that would be powerful regardless of the surrounding tall buildings or other impressive structures. The irregular structure was indicative of Koolhaas intention to depart from the idea of structural purity and be released from the conservative and close minded straight lines order that had shaped architecture – the "Cartesian Cage" [24] . CCTV’s design was also a way to show that imperfection is allowed in architecture as imperfection is what makes us human. CCTV represents the positive and forward thinking architecture, which can be promising to a society that has been suppressed and isolated for years. CCTV represents the symbol of openness to the world which would mean more Western influences and allow China to grow and develop at the same or even faster rate than the Western world.

Analysis of the dependent Kunsthal versus the independent CCTV building

The Kunsthal and CCTV buildings have something in common; they are trying to avoid the "Cartesian Cage" [25] by breaking out and creating structures that re-define the typical box like structures that people are accustomed, thus defining the post-modernistic era. In terms of Culture, the Kunsthal is very dependent on the local culture and identity of the local people, a dependent condition that defines the building, since one of the goals was to project the local culture to the world. The CCTV is architected independent of the local culture or its environment since its purpose was to project the power of the government. In terms of money, the Kunsthal is dependent on the low budget and high expectations to improve the local economy. The purpose of the Kunsthal was to improve the financial situation of the area, by promoting the culture and identity of the area. CCTV had no interest to attract tourism since the building was to be promoted via the Olympics to the rest of the world. The main purpose of the CCTV was to demonstrate the power of an upcoming economically powerful government. The client, although in both cases a government figure acts, in different ways in each case. In Kunsthal the government is the city of Rotterdam that sought to project the cultural, historical, and the traditional elements of the city. The client in this case depended on the local and famous architect who understood all the elements since he was raised with them to define and complete the project. In CCTV the client was the Chinese State Television Organization which was a totally an independent client in terms of political jurisdictions, and funding.

The Tjibaou Cultural Centre - A dependent project from Renzo Piano

The Jean-Marie Tjibaou Cultural Center is located in Nouméa - New Caledonia, which is situated in a French territory in South Pacific [26] . The Center was designed to honor and recognize the Kanak culture after their political leader, Jean-Marie Tjibaou [27] . The France Government wanted to honour the leaders’ contributions to his people and awarded the project to Renzo Piano, a renowned Italian Architect and Pritzker winner [28] . "Piano designed 10 "huts" of different dimensions that cover an area of 7,650 square meters for an estimated cost of $55 Million US Dollars. He used steel, aluminum, concrete, glass and iroko – a tropical Africa native material that is durable and immune to insects, fungi and mold. The largest of the huts is 28 meters high which represents a 9 storey building. Each of the 10 "huts" looks like a native Tjibao house and serves a specific purpose. The houses are interconnected by an indoor backbone and are organized into three villages" [29] . The first village is dedicated to exhibition activities and includes a 400 seat auditorium and recording studio for performance arts. The second village includes offices for historians, researchers and staff. The houses on the second village contain a multimedia library and a conference hall. The third village hosts dance studios, painting, sculpture and music rooms. The buildings have been designed as a continuation of the surrounding landscape in order to accurately represent the Kanak tribe. This project is strongly related to the culture of the Kanak people. As you enter the structure you experience "a path that is lined by mythological gardens which tell a story of Tea Kanake" [30] (i.e. the one who is the first born). The first garden in the structure represents the story of the beginning of the world [31] . As someone continues the journey after entering the structure and following the path to the different gardens will experience the Taro Garden [32] as well as the Yam Garden [33] . The gardens were added after the structure was built; but they are unfinished to reflect what Jean Marie Tjibaou preached; "our identity is beyond us, it is not behind us, it's just beyond. So you always have to create it day by day. It's not something you can lean on and it means that culture is always unfinished" [34] . Piano designed the houses borrowing dependent elements from the Kanak architecture which promoted natural ventilation. The structure represents their history since their history is not written in any books but it is "written" in the plants, the vegetation and the shapes of their houses and the uses of nature to survive.

New Caledonia was on its way to its own independence when the French government was asked to fund the project with the purpose to celebrate their culture and recognize their identity. Why would the French government offer to sponsor the project? Kanak was a nation that suffered a lot throughout the years as they were indigenous with no support from the local government. The French government knew that their independency was inevitable and wanted to give the message that they supported that nation and recognized their culture and history by funding the Center. It was this gesture that could help the French government to overcome the perception that they suppressed the Kanak nation for so many years and that they had no interest to retain, support and promote their history and culture. However, the French government was still running the risk of being accused of promoting the exploitation of the Kanak people in an effort to attract tourism [35] . We see that there is benefit here for the French since they can restore their name and for the Kanak to retain their identity and culture, both representing dependent conditions. Ultimately, the French government would monetarily benefit from the tourism but not the Kanak people. Piano was sensitive and respectful to the culture and the traditions of the Kanak people as he was designing the project, which helped demonstrate the departure from the past and embrace the future opportunities between the French government and the Kanak people. His client was the French government, but he was attempting to maintain and promote the Kanak culture.

Why Piano Renzo got awarded the project? Piano Renzo explained it as "When we say ‘culture’ we usually mean our own: a fine soup blended from Leonardo da Vinci and Freud, Kant and Darwin, Louis XIV and Don Quixote. In the Pacific it is not just the recipe that is different but the ingredients as well. We can approach their soup with detachment, bringing our own cutlery. Or we can try to understand how it was born, what philosophy of life has shaped it… I didn’t bring my own cutlery. All I brought were my skills and those of the Building Workshop: techniques needed to create spaces and construct buildings" [36] .

The Shard - An independent project from Renzo Piano

Renzo Piano’s "The Shard" is London’s newest [37] skyscraper and the tallest building in Western Europe [38] reaching 310m tall. The building was originally conceived in 2000 by Piano, by request of Irvine Sellar [39] who is a London based entrepreneur. He decided to hire Renzo Piano for this project because they shared similar thoughts on the concept of the building. Sellar said "I saw straight away that he was the man for the job. The collaboration has been a spectacular success from the day one" [40] . Piano described his design as a "shard of glass" from which came the nick name "The shard" for the building. In the late 2007, global economic concerns almost cancelled the project, which was announced back at 2008 to begin construction, bringing investments by Qatari investors who paid £150 Million to secure 80% stake of the project. The Shard contains 95 storeys which will host a 200-bed 5 star hotel, residences, offices, a plaza and a public viewing platform [41] . The building gives a massive presence in the London skyline [42] . It is build utilizing an unusual technique, in which the first 40 levels is build out of steel frames, the next 70 are concrete and the last 22 levels are again steel frames. The first 40 steel framed levels are supported by a concrete core so that as the Shard rises, and spans shrink, the number of interior columns reduces. The next 70 concrete floors absorb more sound and were designed for living quarters and a hotel [43] . This helps in bringing building stability since as the wind blows and the building moves, concrete has better abilities to absorb some of the energy from other materials. Piano’s Shard consists of several glass facades that incline inwards but do not meet at the top. [44] The overall shape though for the building is inspired by the towering church spires and mast of the ships that once anchored on the Thames, the Shard’s form was generated by the irregular site plan and open to the sky to allow the building to breath naturally [45] . However, Piano was not a fan of that type of structures, when he started on the Shard he says `` Very often skyscrapers are symbols of arrogance and power’’ he also asserts that `` they are about being bigger, taller, and project more power" [46] .

As discussed previously, the building started as an idea to bring money to the original investor. The original idea was independent in terms of money since the investor was confident that he would sustain its development and sustainability. He also said "the design of Renzo was to be less a building, more a vertical city district" [47] . All the different services of the building were totally independent and could accommodate different series of residential apartments and offices. This was a building to serve the rich and famous that could afford it. So in that way it can be independent from the user and from the economic factor. Even when the original vision changed when Qatar investors took over 80% stake of the building, it still remained an independent project. The Shard now becomes more of a plan of a Qatar [48] to invest and dominate financially around the globe. Still independent but this time involving social and economic approaches of a country. The original money independency remained and even expanded since a family of 4 could not afford to pay £100 to visit the Shard. This was also a barrier to entry to target only certain financial groups that could visit the building. The Shard is purely a symbol of capitalism and as such is targeted to withstand and sustain itself through the years. The Shard is also independent in terms of the client. The client, even though changed from Sellar to the Qatar Investors, still remained on the original idea to project status and power as well as to have a mix of different functions in the building in order to get benefit from the different services of the building. The architect had to align his culture and his ways of thinking, so that he can align with the expectations of the client. The client and the architect in that project are considered independent elements because of the different cultural, design and way of thinking in terms of culture, traditions, and transportation. The client needed to provide a way to project the power the status of this iconic symbol and the cultural identity of London to the rest of the world, so that he could attract tourists and foreign investments. Finally the Shard is culturally independent since the architect did not take into account the cultural elements surrounding the building. The main goals for this building were to project power and attract rich tourists and investors, with no respect to the cultural identity of London.

Analysis of the dependent Tjibaou versus the independent Shard building

The Tjibaou and Shard buildings have something in common – similarly to the previous analysis for Koolhaas; they are both designed to attract tourists. In terms of Culture, the Tjibaou is extremely dependent on the local culture and identity of the local people, a dependent condition that defines the building, since one of the goals was to project the local Kanak culture to the world. The Shard is architected independent of the local culture since its purpose was to project the power and become a symbol of capitalism for London. The Tjibaou is dependent in terms of money since it is expected to improve the local economy by bringing more tourists to the area. The Shard was built to serve the rich and famous and thus is not providing any benefits to the area surrounding the building but only the building’s sustainability. In Tjibaou, multiple beneficiaries exist such as the French government, the local stores. The building becomes the reason to attract tourists. Tourists will not travel to London to just see the Shard since London has a very well established tourist attraction (Big Ben, The Royal Family, Thames, etc.). This way, the Shard becomes independent of money. The Tjibaou is also dependent on terms of the client since the French government will gain a lot in term of their reputation. Should this have been done by the Tjibaou would not have the same effects as it is done today by the French government, since the French poured more money to create an iconic building that stands through time to remind it’s people of their hardships, and that way gain a better perception by the world. The Shard changed clients and yet the ultimate goal remained the same; to build an iconic building that serves as a symbol of capitalism and attracts rich people. This way the client too is an independent condition.

Conclusion

In the above paper we analyzed two dependent and two independent projects; all of them attracted great attention from the global community, each one of them for their own reasons. Kunsthal and Tjibaou are the two dependent projects that were initiated by governments. The Kunsthal was initiated by the local government and Tjibaou was originated by the French government. Both projects represented the local cultures with the intent to attract international interest and tourism. However, the reasons for attracting international interest were somewhat different between Kunsthal and Tjibaou. In Kunsthal, the local government was looking to boost the economy of Rotterdam, whereas, in Tjibaou the French government was looking to reinstate its intention to recognize and support the Kanak culture and existence, after years of having this nation as one of their colony. The client in Kunsthal didn’t have much to invest and the architect was challenged to create a landmark with a limited budget. On the other hand, Tjibaou was a big investment from the French government that spent $55 million to structure the landmark. Both governments would benefit from the projects. In Kunsthal, the local community flourished from the investments and the economic development, due to the demands of the thousands of tourists who visited the area every year. Therefore, the public as well as the government enjoyed financial benefits. However, in Tjibaou, the French government was the one who got the initial benefit of this project as it wanted to show their support and recognition to the Kanak culture. In addition, the international community wanted to know more about the Kanak culture, therefore the people, though they did not enjoy any direct financial benefit at first, received international recognition which led to participating in outreach programs and promoting their heritage. Ultimately, this recognition led to more tourism in the area. The Kanaks are still indigenous but they became independent. There has been a boost in their economy but the benefits do not directly go to the public. Both projects are extensions of their surrounding landscape as both are extensions of their natural environments.

The CCTV and the Shard are the two independent projects that were analyzed in this paper. Both projects were designed as symbols of power and authority, with no consideration or interest in the public’s benefit. CCTV was initiated by the non-democratic government of China, which wanted to demonstrate to the world that it is the upcoming economic power. CCTV was the symbol of departure from the traditional Chinese architecture and the leading design and concept for a city that was developed to become an economic center of the nation. Similarly, Shard was a symbol of departure from the traditional British architecture and the leading design and concept for London who is already an established economy. As those projects are not dependent on the client similarly to the dependent project we talked about, they don’t benefit the public. CCTV does not offer any opportunities to the public or any financial benefits to the people of China who still suffer from poverty regardless of the financial benefits of CCTV which are completely controlled by the Chinese government. Similarly, Shard was built to serve the rich people of London and around the world, since the people who live in the city didn’t enjoy any benefits from the creation of the structure other than aesthetic ones. Both buildings are unrelated to the local culture as their creation is to depart from the traditional architectural designs of their respective countries. Money was almost unlimited in both projects as the ultimate goal was to build mega structures as symbols of power. Kolas and Piano were selected primarily for their reputation and their ability to attract interest from the international community in every project they design. Therefore, the selection of the architects had to do with their own power and status to ensure attention from the global community.

As I have mentioned before, regardless of whether someone supports dependent or independent architecture, the significance falls in creating intellectual architecture. In my opinion, the dependent architecture is more challenging to the architect and gives opportunities for creating great structures with several constraints and contingencies. Dependent architecture is more real to the human life, where humans need to be successful and yet obey the laws and follow the rules. It is a more humanistic approach than the independent architecture which may be more impressive but it does not contain the culture, the meaning and the benefit to the public. I am a strong advocate of the dependent architecture. The dependency can be found everywhere in the structure from the initial sketches to the inhabitation of the building [49] . I agree with the Rem’s statement that architects have to place themselves in the client’s position and appreciate what the client is looking to accomplish with the creation of the building. Great work can be found everywhere, no matter how much the budget – it is all about the architecture; and architecture is a form of art, an endless source of artistic creation.