Designer Studied In Munich Germany Cultural Studies Essay

In 1966, Ingo Maurer went back to Germany and established his own firm, Design M in Munich, is a firm which fully producing lighting products and lighting concepts. One of the reason Ingo Maurer would like to concentrating in lighting design is he was influenced by Pop Art which contributed popular culture and widely used in movies, televisions and any other mass communications. Then, he released his first lighting design ‘Bulb’ at the same year and it was also popular in design world. He also did conference with Japanese, and that, he started to design something which is related with Japanese culture. One of his famous designs is fan lamps made in thin Japanese paper and thus, he successfully present it in early 1970. In 1984, Ingo Maurer released YaYaHo, a kind of low-voltage wire system and at the same time, he was the pioneer in YaYaHo system. It was striking enough and YaYaHo been achieved by interior design industry.

In 1989, most of Ingo Maurer’s designs being explored in many exhibitions and thus, he became famous all over the world. Vitra Design Museum cooperates with Ingo Maurer to launch slew exhibitions related to lights design and it was shown in certain cities in Europe and Japan. In 1990, he tried something new and applied on his design. It was different from his conservative design in the past, he used broken crockery as material. At the same year, he expand his company not only produce lighting, but also provide something which is widely used for public or private clients. Since then, Ingo Maurer was better known as Ingo Maurer GmbH.

From Design M a small firm nowadays already employed more than 60 employees. In 2008, he expended his firm into 700 square meter showroom which located same building with his office. Then in 2010, Ingo Maurer received design awards of the Federal Republic of Germany.


Ingo Maurer started his first company, Design M in 1966 in Germany. Company was then expanded to Ingo Maurer GmbH.

In 1960, emigrated to United States and keep worked as a freelance designer.






Designed a table lamp with bulb since been inspired by pop art in 1966. Maurer Bulb Table Lamp by Ingo Maurer

Ingo Maurer YaYaHo système d'éclairage basse tension, Élément 5 Ingo Maurer YaYaHo système d'éclairage basse tension, Élément 5

Birdie Busch 1992

Bulb & Johnny B. Butterfly

1984 first time presented low voltage wire system YaYaHo.

One thousand and one lights2006

LED table 2003

In 2008, collaboration between Ron Arad to create statue lighting with materials such as steel honeycomb and aluminum

Ingo Maurer offered Paper Love to raise the cancer fund and sold at auction.

LED table lamp was presented in 2001.

Took part in architectural project such as conjunction bridge in Koln to Munich, art installation in Munich airport.

Lucellino, a bulb fit with wingswas the best well known design in 1992.

One thousand and one lights2006


1993 Licht licht at Stedelijk Museum, Amsterdam

1992 Working with Light at Villa Stuck in Munich


2007 Lighting of Ingo Maurer at Cooper Hewitt Museum, New York

2002 Reaching for the Moon in Europe and Japan

1989 Light Chance Reflection in Jouy-en-Josas, Paris

Ingo Maurer’s works has been presented in many different exhibitions in different states. Thus here is the list of the exhibitions:


2011 1st prize competition mezzanine subway station Marienplatz, Munich

2011 Compasso d'Oro, category career

2010 Design Award of the Federal Republic of Germany

2006 Honorary doctorate of Royal College of Art, London

2005 Royal Designer of Industry, Royal Society of Arts, London

2003 Oribe Award, Japan

2003 Georg Jensen Prize, CopenhagenArt

2002 Collab's Design Excellence Award, Philadelphia Museum of Art

2000 Lucky Strike Designer Award of Raymond Loewy Foundation, Germany

Ingo Maurer had due awards in his works in different countries and his popularity begun. He’ve been through lots of places for exhibitions and also been rewarded in couple of awards.

Here is history of nominated projects won in different years:


It’s rather a story why Ingo Maurer had quitted his career as a graphic designer. There was a day Ingo Maurer had tea time and he was lying down, the lamps hanging over the ceiling arose his interest, thus he started the life of lighting design. Then, Ingo Maurer had strong interest about the design of OLED (Organic Light Emitting Diodes) which much more prefer something economical and save energies from being increase the bulbs or can be used in many ways like transparent, flexible lights source and flat. And thus, he created first OLED table lamp which allowed to bring back home in 2008.


Ingo Maurer can be considered a person who has many passions in trying different things and also has enough competencies to achieve any tries. He had been received several kinds of projects and it was challenging. Ingo Maurer always think ways to rectify or develop existing products to make it robust enough. Yet, his quote ‘making art a part of function’ shows he’s able to make his design in such a unique and different like no one has.

In other way, Ingo Maurer had given a name ‘a poet of light’. This name came with Ingo Maurer has design patent in adding some elements or structures and eventually make his product full of poetic. By the way, he is somewhat fascinated on ‘magical and mystical’ features of lights. He is well-played in making some changes so that his product could be matched under different lighting atmosphere, colors of space and brightness or shadow.


Ingo Maurer was always the one who provides different design and it’s memorable towards people. He can be concluded as the pioneer of design lighting by using halogen. Yet there was certain words used to describe his works such as artistic, magical, sculptural, futuristic and global. Here is some of his works which includes:

Floor light

Ar-Ingo StehleuchteaR-ingo by Ron Arad and Ingo Maurer 1984aR-ingo by Ron Arad and Ingo Maurer 1984

aR-ingo Floor Light design by Ingo Maurer and Ron Arad. It was made by 2 combinations of 2 different materials such as steel and aluminum. It has honeycomb made in aluminum which provides 150 watt. Thus it gives a very comfy feels with any environments. Yet the brightness can be adjusted by rolling the slide on the side.

Ingo Maurer Alizz F Cooper Floor Lamp Hose DetailIngo Maurer Alizz F Cooper Modern Floor LampIngo Maurer Alizz F Cooper Modern Floor Lamp

Alizz F Cooper Floor Light is a lamp full of mysteriousness toward its flexible body lamp. It can be very interesting where people can bend the hose in any ways like the way how snake wriggles. It is a new thing that people can decide their own shape of this lamp. The head of the lamp is 360 degree rotatable. It is made by metal, plastic, rubber hose.

Pendent light

Zettel'z 5 Pendant light is different from ordinary pendant light. The sheets of notes hanging over accentuated among usual pendant light. Thus, Ingo Maurer applied traditional ways by using Japanese paper so that it brings a romantic feels. The lights will spread through the paper notes n gives feelings of serenity. Materials used are stainless steel, heat-resistant satin-frosted glass and also Japanese paper.Zettel'z 5 Pendant light

Birdies Nest Ceiling fixture not a chandelier nor pendant light, it’s a ceiling fixture lights. This lamp was design specially for low ceiling room. It is patent to each light bulb has their own ‘wings’, and that pair of ‘wings’ are real-goose feather. This ceiling fixture looks like a drop of water spreads all over the spaces. This lamp is pretty unique from it’s shape, concept and also it’s design. Materials used are metal and goose-feather wings. There is a chandelier which has the same features:

Ceiling fixture Ingo Maurer Birdie's Nest Ceiling Lamp by Ingo Maurer

Birdies Nest Ceiling Lamp by Ingo Maurer 2005

Table light

Kokoro Table light another way on presenting table light. Ingo Maurer is intrigued by Japanese art, thus this designed based on his involvement into Japanese art. It’s like a dancing movement, the sharp red color envelops stainless steel rod is like the way skirt blows. There is a love shaped mirror which is used to reflect lights and it is adjustable. A red peak is located over mirror. Then, it has a slide for controlling brightness. This table lamp was done by Ingo Maurer. The materials used include red paper, metal, stainless steel, plastic and glass.Kokoro Tischleuchte

Bang boom, like the name, the hanging lamp looks such fierce. It was like something explore towards us. Ingo Maurer added some combinations of comic, typography and comics, made this whole lamp looks more interesting. Yet, paper is the main material used in constructing this lamp.

Hanging light


Bauhaus is an important art movement founded in German. Bauhaus school, also intitules the House of Architecture is the famous art movement in 20th century. Bauhaus in German means a typeface of contemporary in architectural career. The Bauhaus school started from 1919 to 1933 and yet it has been gone through 3 phases among these 14 years in 3 different places. The first stage is started in the city of Weimar. The second stage is the most stable stage after Bauhaus declared as an art movement between 1923 and 1928. In 1925, the Bauhaus was then moved from Weimar to Dessau by reason of Weimar’s government lose their strength. So that Bauhaus transferred to Berlin in 1928 to 1933. There was 3 directors hold the rights of Bauhaus in the 3 different stages (by Brian Kievning).

The first stage was led by Walter Gropius, but this affair was then succeeded to an architect Hannes Meyer and become the second director of Bauhaus. After Bauhaus shifted to Berlin in 1930, the third director has been taking over by Architect Mies van der Rohe. Yet, Walter Gropius is the most important stage which to be concerned so much in Bauhaus because Gropius’s goal in developing technologies combine together with arts and crafts. Gropius is the first person who found out Bauhaus, yet one of the most important things Gropius be the main focused is he has different idea on Bauhaus and did something that never been before such as technology (by LibbyAnn93 on Oct 12, 2011). Gropius was the pioneer of Bauhaus affected by the art movement at 19th and 20th century possesses Victorian England. Futuristic is one of the feature among art movements which been chosen by Gropius in designing as in Gropius would like to make a fusion buildings that architects and designers can work together and create a future buildings by using advanced technologies.


Architect Walter Gropius mentioned Bauhaus is an idea reformation rather than an original idea. Therefore, the skills of technology have to be always maintained while understanding the changes of ideation. Other than that, technology education is a must learn skill to ensure the needs of society for further modify. Traditional design could not change yet it has to keep its original design. According to Gropius, the Bauhaus is not only involved traditional design or old school design, but it has to mix some new elements to reach the goal of produce future’s design. Gropius is about to keep the original old school design, he has add on some new elements or modify in designing. By the way, Bauhaus is not teaching the artist or architect separately, it wants to apply unique features on design or can be assumed Bauhaus design combines many types of elements. In the past, Bauhaus regards as a pure education in teaching architect or fine arts. It tends to link all branches of fine arts and architect in one object and thus there was different styles and different levels been used in one object. The Bauhaus would like to combine all universities of architect and fine arts. And thus, Bauhaus has 3 main elements in design which is architecture, fine arts and engineers building technology. It helps Bauhaus in designing which has combination of those fields. Then, Bauhaus also request students explore their minds, encourage talented take part in set out new designs. Where after the first school of Bauhaus in German was born, students who interested in fusion designing are encourage to enroll and learn the way of create new design.


Been crowned the world’s most popular modern art and design movement, Bauhaus is tending to achieve aesthetic synthesis which is cover all the brands of arts as first step of architecture. Other than that, Bauhaus tends to produce people’s needs according to the population. It does not depend on the different levels people, the only thing to do is designing. Architect is one of the elements used the most in Bauhaus, people are require make sure they have learn the skills of using in architect. It shows the importance of architect skills. It was a disadvantage when painting, sculpture, arts and crafts from architecture been taught solely, architect should be taught all in one.

The poverty of First World War brought huge impacts affected design, architecture and art changed from their original style. Thus aesthetic synthesis formed in Bauhaus movement which is a combination of modern stuffs. The Bauhaus style is purism, while the surface is very smooth enough with straight edges and finally produces slim form. Bauhaus is going in for simple design, prevention of more than what is due have to be maintain all the time. Bauhaus is mostly use in furniture designing, shinning steels considers the main material use in furniture among other materials such as glasses, bent woods, leathers and plastics. Between, furniture design has to be light and less additional decoration. When mentioned about colors of chosen for Bauhaus furniture, black, grey, white, brown and chromium would be the first choice. But sometimes there was some primary colors used to reduce the darkness of the entire look and gives feelings of comfy.




Are you sitting comfortably? A Bauhaus Marcel Breuer chair

The design of desk and chair is based of Bauhaus movement designed by Thonet.

Bauhaus chess net from 1923 by Joset Harwig obviously showed the way Bauhaus presents in actual form. The cubic designs for every single element reflect the idea in applying Bauhaus features. (Cliff Kuang August 26, 2009)

A series of Tubular steel chairs by Marcel Breuer, designed in the same way with different sizes, color tones more on bright differ from Bauhaus actual color concept which mostly apply dark colors. It is modern yet its simple design. It is made by using modern manufacturing skills and modern materials too (by apartmentbloggerby apartmentblogger, Nov 11th, 2009).

Marcel Breuer chair minimize the usage of materials. The design is made by using new technology and skills, thus it has simple shape and form makes whole design look much more tidy. It also gives pleasing feels (by Fisun Güner, Sunday, 16 May 2010).



Bauhaus desk and chairBauhaus chess set


Other than Walter Gropius, there were several artists, architects and designers brought out from Bauhaus such as Marcel Breuer, Anni Albers, Johannes Itten, Otto Umbehr, Paul Klee, Peter Behrens, Oskar Schlemmer, Lily Reich, El Lissitzky, Herbert Bayer.

Marcel Breuer

Marcel Lajos Breuer was one the famous designers in Europe, was born on 21 May 1902 in city of Pecs, Hungary. He used to teach Bauhaus in 20th century in Weimar and Dessau. At the same time, he was the one who collaborated with Walter Gropius joining Harvard’s architecture faculty in 1935. Among his designs, tubular steel furniture is the well best known and it also brought his reputation to the top. By the way Marcel Breuer was the founder of Modern Movement.Irene Bayer, Portrait Marcel Breuer, um 1928, Bauhaus-Archiv Berlin / Museum für Gestaltung

Lounge chair design has added on wheels as stand. It is made by flat bands twined over and over.

Wassily Chair No B3 was designed based on the shape of bicycle handlebars. It is made by nickelled tubular steel while the seat was made in leather.

Short Chair was Marcel Breuer’s earlier design by using plywood.

Anni Albers

Anni Albers was a founder of modernism in 20th century together with Josef Albers. Beside Anni Albers was a textile designer, weaver, writer and printmaker. She was born in 1899 June 12 in Berlin. In 1922, she joined Bauhaus as in she had been infused the drawing techniques by her parents since she was young. Anni’s design traits were applying new materials with colorful papers. She played different materials to produce different textile with silk, cotton and linen yarns.

One of the textile manufacturing called Maharam had been designed by using chosen materials. chenille

It’s the first printed cotton with combination of different colors and scales.eclat

Black, White, Gold 1 is chosen among her weaving with cotton, jute and metallic ribbon.

Under way was weaved in cotton, linen and wool.i200

Johannes Itten

Johannes Itten was born in 1888 November 11 in the Bern Oberland. He became Bauhaus artist at the moment he went an abroad trip in 1913. He was inspired by his surrounding friends and music, and then he had been invited in teaching Bauhaus in 1919. He was famous as colors theorist, at the same time he was the first person who found out the perfect match of colors. Through hue concept and observation of lights, mix out the proper colors.

Combination of primary colors, blue, red and yellow.

The combination of color between ‘cool’ and ‘warm’ series. itten's contrast of hue - primariesContrast of warm and cool

Simultaneous contrastContrast of hue

When boundary colors meet together, comes out a big contrast thus illusion was formed.

The combination between different of hue shows the distance in the colors wheel.

Otto Umbehr

Otto Umbehr born in Dusseldorf, German in January 18, 1902. His father was a famous architecture while he was a popular photographer. He joined in Bauhaus in 1921. Johannes Itten influenced Otto Umbehr to become a Bauhaus artist. (Kraftgenie, 2010 October 9).

This is a photo captured in Berlin, Mystery of the Street was one of the famous photograph among his works. It was a technique of capture by turning upside down, the shadows were more reality compare to actual objects.

Night in a Small Townartemisdreaming: Umbo (Otto Umbehr) Skatrunde [Round of Cards], 1935

 Skatrunde, Round of Cards

Paul Klee

Paul Klee was born in 1879, December 18 in Switzerland. He was involved in painter at the beginning in 1898, and then Walter Gropius had invited Klee to become one of the family in Bauhaus movement (Rewald, Sabine. "Paul Klee (1879–1940)". In Heilbrunn Timeline of Art History. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art, 2000–. (October 2004). His design style was highly affected by expressionism, cubism and surrealism.

Rose Garden, another paint art by applying oil on cardboard.

Dream City is a paint art, with the combination of oil and watercolor.

This Red and White Domes was done by water color and also applied body color on Japanese, finally mount on vellum.