Main Conditions That Define Architecture Cultural Studies Essay

Introduction

What are the main conditions that define architecture? Is it the dependent or the independent disciplines that makes the difference to the architect, or to the buildings that can project these disciplines in to the rest of the world.

To analyze these two conditions, throughout examples you are about to see what the dependent and the independent conditions mean for the upcoming architects. Rem Koolhaas and Renzo Piano are two very important architects of our times. In this essay I will frame four of their projects which project these conditions in the optimum way. Kunsthal and CCTVHQ from Rem, and Tjibaou Cultural Center and The Shard from Renzo Piano, by framing these projects with the elements of money(economy), the client(user), and the cultural agenda( politics, government, people, and history), I will categorize the projects whether they dependent or the independent elements of architecture by using them were needed, and throughout some extensive examples I will make clear about what I think about these projects are and the reason I placed them in the conditions of dependent and independent.

Dependent Condition of Architecture

`` Architecture is dependent on others at every stage of its journey from initial sketch to inhabitation" [1] 

Dependency is everywhere in architecture [2] . This condition can be considered in every project, in every building that architects do. Furthermore to that, if we think that dependency can be found from the initial sketch of the architect, as Jeremy Till referred to, because the architect has to relay on the sketches in order to complete his thoughts for the project. Furthermore we have the architect himself that depends on the environment, the cultural agenda of the city, the history of the site, and the local traditions of people. However a dependent element is the client; the client will guide the architect and align the architect’s thoughts in order for the architect to succeed the expectations of the client. I will refer to Jonathan Hill’s book about the different elements that define the roles of the architect and the role of the user. `` There are two occupations of architecture: the activities of the architect and the actions of the user" [3] , the architect and the user both produce architecture, the former by design the latter by use [4] .

So in order for the dependency to exist among these two elements, the architect and the user have to depend on each other, and create good relationship in order to create architecture. However another element that could define architecture into the world is the building; the building can project the form of dependency, we can understand that in the inhabitation element, like functionality of the building’s form and the way it is designed can project this dependency, because the shape and the function of the building can be an icon in the dependency. These elements of dependency can be found everywhere from the initial sketches till the production and the usage of the building, from the client till the culture and history of the city. So we have different elements that had to work together and depend on each other in order for the dependency to exist in architecture.

Money as dependent element:

The money play vital role in architecture. There are a lot of different factors that co-operate together in order to shape architecture and create a sustain environment in the dependency. This term of sustain economy can project the architect, due to this major depends on external factors in order to create a project.

However the budget also depends on the architect, I can say that the architect acts as the client’s agent in spending money, which in this case it may be substantial; [5] the amount the client will eventually have to spend money, and will depend on the skills and the efficiency of the architect. [6] In addition to that part of David’s Chappel book, I can say that the budget depends on the architect, and the architect depends on the budget in order to create a building. So client is the one that will spend money and he has to choose an architect how has a good reputation in order to spend money on him, so we can say that fame is an expansion from the economic factor of the architect, and can also be considered as a driving factor for the client, in order to hire an architect.

However another vital element can be the area that the project is going to be situated, due to the location, the building has to be adjusted in order to sustain in its optimum level the economy and depend other external economic factors which will help it in order to work properly, like tourism, foreign and local investments, and projection to other countries as a cultural or iconic building. Furthermore to that this placement of the building is up to the client’s decision, and how the architect will adjust the building in order for it to depend on the site and project its existence [7] 

However the politics; they can change the shape and the faction of the building, and the global market, which can have a direct impact in the economy of a big project or even can affect the clients expectations to make a building and even the fame of an architect could have an impact of the economy of a project. I would refer to Rem Koolhaas, `` fame is another outcome that can drive the architect in order to make money, this elements of money and fame can create the icon of a successful architect, and it can change the way of architects see and work with architecture." [8] 

For instance Rem Koolhaas had to face this kind of economic upwards and downwards of the economy. Kunsthal could be a very good example in the case of economic elements. It was a project that had to project the culture of the city of Rotterdam, so due to the client was the city of Rotterdam, they wanted to have a cultural icon that could project the history on the culture of the city, the politics played a big role in the case of this building, due to they wanted to project culture and raise money, the building totally depend in foreign money, like tourists from other countries, and even could accommodate foreign galleries. So as you can see that the economic factor depends on different elements in order exist.

Client

The meaning of client in the eyes of an architect could mean a lot of different and very complicated elements together. The dependency in this element of client is very important, however the architect in mutually depend on the client and also the client depends on the architect. I can refer to Jonathan Hill book that says `` There are two occupations of architecture: the activities of the architect and the actions of the user, the architect and the user both produce architecture, the former by design, the latter by use". [9] 

However as you can read the architect and the client have to create a relationship, so that they could work together as a team in order to accomplish their goals, for instance the efficiency of the architect, the method of design, the ability of communication, and how the architect can accomplish the brief. All these elements depend on the architect in order to have a job, so that the client could hire him. However I can say that the client could represent the culture of a place or even the relationship with the landscape in order to have dependency because the client always depends on the architect and on the place, he can be considered as a dependent peace of architecture.

For instance Rem Koolhaas; he is a criticism machine [10] he tries to put himself in the position of the client. The auto criticism is a very good element in the life of an architect, because it turns the architect to the client position. As Rem said `` Perhaps this is the most critical think for me; not only because, economically, we are practically inept, but because we are suffering on a horizontal curve of change in architecture. Peter was talking earlier about extreme passivity `` we are totally passive as a profession, waiting for the commissions to come to us" [11] From that point we can say that the architect depends on the user to bring the contract about the building. So I would say that the client depends totally to the architect in order to make a project, and the architect also to depend on the client, so we have a key reaction of two elements of architecture, that assemble the one another.

Cultural Agenda a Dependent Condition:

Another well worth mentioning point, is the cultural agenda; the dependent conditions in these elements have different impact from the independent. `` They must believe in the public’s right to influence decisions regarding the built environment- the inevitable outcome of public service-and, like or must find a way to stimulate the public concerns to the buildings. [12] In the case of dependent condition the architect and the building depend on the history or culture of the area to project culture in the outside world. The building can stimulate the cultural agenda of the city that is located. [13] 

So we can take the fact that the culture also depends on the user and the user depends on the building. Some of the driving factors can change the form of the building like; the politics which can affect the project in terms of functionality, the economy in terms of bring tourists in the building and raising its economy, in addition to that there is the local or foreign investments that can hold the economy of the building, and the global culture, can have a direct impact into the building, in terms of bringing tourists, project the building in to the rest of the world and finally the function and the form of the building, which is about attract local communities and tourists. So as you can see there are different elements in the cultural agenda that depend on each other.

Independent Condition of Architecture:

The independent condition in architecture can be considered as the type of a totally and more individual type of architecture in contrast to the dependent one.

The independent condition in architecture tempts to create a sensible division into the most important factors of construction. However I can say that the challenge of construction makes the architect to create new and more independent types of constructions, which are going to affect the way people leave. However this change can bring other types of elements in the independency, like the architect being an independent form the external factors, like client, and economical factors. However the buildings can play a vital factor in the independency, like their shapes, because the shape of a building can project if it is dependent like Kunsthal or an independent like CCTV HQ. I can refer to William Maker book to state my thinking, ``we have the buildings which have different organic and inorganic shapes in the architecture, these different types of buildings can express the way that the independent architecture works" [14] Moreover to that the buildings can challenge the architect in order to design these types of buildings in order to attract tourist and investments in the building, so the organic and the inorganic shapes help the building to project its existence and be independent form other external factors like politics, investments, and the local communities.

However the independent part can also affect the architect and make him act as a professional master, due to some eternal factors, like money that can bring fame, and fame can bring status, these two elements can create a chain reaction into the architects mind. [15] So I would say that if the architect is not able to control these two elements he will end up thinking about his ego and being totally independent from other external factors. However the independency can be found in other parts of architecture, like economic factors. These factors can play a vital role in the dependency of a building. Politic as government and local people can affect the architect and the building. In terms of being independent from other factors like, client, culture, and the architect himself, like the architects tend to have a direct control of the money completely both its distribution at the outset and the ongoing flow throughout the process of the construction of the building. [16] 

So as you can read the condition of independency can be found on various elements of architecture. The independency is a condition that fulfills the architecture and drives it to change forms and functions in terms of building design and projecting them in to the rest of the world as an icon to attract tourism.

Money an Independent part of Architecture:

Money in the case of independence can be considered as different elements that project the independency from other smaller parts that assemble the economic factor. Some of the independent parts of the economic element could be the politics, the local and foreign investments and the architect himself. To some extend we can say that all of these different elements fit together and assemble the one another. However I would say that politics can play a vital role in the case of independency in architecture. Consequently architecture can change due to political willingness. Due to politics can change the environment of a building and adjust their expectations to it, they can consider as an independent part that can change not only the building but the architect in some extend, because of different expectations like make buildings that attract tourists, or buildings to accommodate foreign investments. However the local and foreign architecture can also considered as an independent outcomes of the money that can change the shape of architecture. As Jeremy Till referred to his book ``the social and the economic as forces can shape architecture" [17] However the question of how is going to be benefit from that kind of projects are always in the front page of independency, due to different factors that affect the control of money, I would say that the client can be the first that will get affected, due to is the first that will take money and can control other incomes into the building, like making choice of the users, attracting tourists, or even accommodate foreign companies in order to get benefit from them.

The Shard for instance, the client Sellar properties want the building to be totally independent, I can say that it refers only into rich people that can buy properties in that building. So the building can also play role in the independency and can control the money. I would also say that the one that get benefits from the money element can be the client, because he can have the control of everything that is around the building, from investments, property owners, companies, or every other user.

Client as an Independent Condition:

There are some architects that are independent how see and work in architecture in a totally independent way this cause the architect to see the upcoming client as a source of income. I can state that architecture can be considered in fact the result of successful design collaboration between an enlightened architect and enlightened client [18] 

I will frame my thinking in the example of the New Caledonia Cultural Center by Renzo Piano. The client could be considered an independent factor, due to they had different opinion about this project; they wanted to attract tourism in the buildings by projecting the culture and the history of the area, so that the building can benefit from the tourists. In contrast to that Renzo had in his mind to adjust his building in to the environment, to add some of the elements of the nature into his building, in order to make it seem more cultural and project that culture into the tourists. From that comparison we can understand that the client and the architect had to rely upon different elements, besides the environment and focus more in the culture, because this was the main point from the beginning of the project.

So we can see that in this case the client as an independent factor, gives the brief to the architect and expecting to take all the parameters in consideration to have a good result, I will say that the architecture can be a form of communication that connects the client and the architect, but I can also say that nether architect and client always follows the same thoughts or even rules in order to create architecture, and that makes them more independent from each other. [19] 

Rem Koolhaas: Kunsthal: A Dependent project:

Rem Koolhaas and his OMA (Office for Metropolitan Architecture) designed a cultural concept in the city of Rotterdam [20] the Kunsthal is in the Museum Park neighborhood of the city of Rotterdam. Firstly I would say that Kunsthal project the condition of dependency in a way that the local people, and the tourist can understand the purpose of that building. Due to the city of Rotterdam wanted a museum in that area, the city wanted to project the culture of Rotterdam into the outside world. I can say that the building totally depends on the culture and on the history of the city. So I can also say that Kunsthal was the building with the desire of architecture that could draw global attention and put Rotterdam on the European cultural map [21] , because Rem could have managed to put that building in to the cultural map by just playing with the exterior shape of the building. I can say that Kunsthal mixes the different elements of culture, history, tourism, and economy, in one building, so that the local people and the tourists could have the chance to admire the construction and the design of the building.

According to the above I could say that the design of the building show very simple from the outside point of view, this could project the simplicity of the building in first place, but it depends in the most of its icon in the interior that projects the complexity of the building. However I can frame my thinking upon Rem’s opinion about the Kunsthal,`` I like to do things that on first sign have a degree of simplicity but show their complexity in a way they are used or at the second place" [22] From that statement I can say that Rem managed to attract the interest of the local and foreign tourists, that the building depend on this type of income, in order for the building to create a sustain economic environment this design make’s it be a cultural form of the city and project this cultural iconic building into the rest of the world.

Money: A dependent condition.

In order for the building to be a dependent peace of architecture there are a number of other factors that help Kunsthal to stand as a dependent building in a cultural city. I would say that Kunsthal was the expectation of the client who wanted to project culture and the tradition into the tourists. However in the Kunsthal the client was the city of Rotterdam who wanted to create a building which could bring money and benefit the city in terms of investments and bring tourist to visit the building. In addition to that the client had to depend on the architect in order to create a building; however the architect had to depend on other external factor, so that he could align his concept with the expectations of the client. Like the culture, the history, and the traditions of the city. On the other hand the economic factor can also come from other sources, for instance, I could say that client could project the building in order to attract tourists and create an environment that could project the cultural agenda of the city. In order to sucked that, they could depend on other sources like creating an environment for agencies, like galleries, schools, or even tourist groups, that could come and visit the building in order for it to sustain its economy in the optimum level.

Client a Dependent factor:

The client in the case of Kunsthal was the city of Rotterdam how wanted to project in the optimum way the cultural, the historical, and the tradition of the city. In order to do that the city counselors after a local and foreign competition tried to find the correct architect in order to start the project. In addition to that the winner of that competition was the Rem Koolhaas. Rem was a local and famous architect that knew the traditions of the city and the way people see architecture. The client totally depends on the architect and on his firm in order to complete the project the reason is because Rem was local architects how know the traditions and the architectural language in order to project the Kunsthal. However I can say in that point that the cultural agenda and the tradition were two very important factors in the process of the project, and in order for the architect to have the optimum concept for the client, he depend on these two factors. As Rem said `` I would exploit the potentials of particular building type, and provide to the client with the maximum of function as well as intellectual stimulation" [23] So in that part I would say that Rem had to depend on the client’s expectations in order to accomplish the goal, because the client want to achieve the optimum functionality with the best results which was the tourism. However due to the client wanted to have a cultural center the city wanted the building to stimulate the history and the cultural agenda of the city of Rotterdam simultaneously. So I can say that the building had to be adjusted in order to depend and withstand the weight of the history, and culture of the city, [24] because the dependency of the building comes from the culture and from the traditions of that city.

I could say that according to the above, we have the reaction between the client and the architect, due to the client gave this project to a local architect, the city had to depend on him and his firm in order to complete the brief. However apart of the client, the architect had also to depend on different things apart of client how will give the brief, Rem had to depend to culture, history ,and politics ( counselors) in order to make the project.

Cultural Agenda a Dependent condition:

In the case of cultural agenda Kunsthal was totally dependent in terms of projecting the history the culture and the traditions of the city. I could say that Rem throughout his building managed to show the cultural element and the historical part of the city, because of the design and the functionality of the building.

Therefore the different elements that assemble the cultural agenda, such as the globalization, the infrastructure of the city, the society, and the history of the city [25] , each of them I could say that depend totally on each other in order to create culture, these are also the elements that Rem took in consideration in order to align his thoughts with the cultural agenda of the city. The reason is that all of these different elements can project the cultural agenda and can change the form, the function, and the overall icon of the building, moreover, these elements I would say that have a direct impact on the building and in the surrounding area that could change its icon. So the building depends on these elements in order to exist, and in contrast to that, these elements are also depending on the building, in order to get know by the tourists.

For instance Koolhaas designed this building in order for it to correspond with the surrounding area. However the building design could also help in the cultural agenda, due to Rem designed the building in order to be an autonomous part that is the outcome by two different interjections that are extensions of the surrounding area of the city. [26] The reason of this kind of design and existence of the building, could project its form in the city and bond with the cultural agenda of Rotterdam.

Why Kunsthal is a dependent piece of architecture

From the above condition, and the different elements, you can understand why I choose Kunsthal to be a dependent peace of architecture. The reason is that from the client to the architect all the parameters and the different elements co-operate and depend on each other in order to create this building. From the client, to the user, the different parameters like political, tourism, infrastructural, and economical circumstances, all these create the icon of the building, which projects this dependency, and I would say that the most common thing about this building which shows the dependency can be considered the culture, due to the building’s main foundation element is the culture which motivate the architect and the client in order to start design this building, and in order to bring economic and tourism growth in the city. This is the reason why I choose this building to be a dependent peace of architecture.

CCTV HQ an Independent Project:

Designed by OMA as a different style of architectural skyscraper, the construction of CCTV HQ started in 2004. This building was about to accommodate TV stations, offices, and broadcasting facilities. The design combines the process from the TV-making formerly scattered in various locations across the city, into a loop of interconnected actives inside the city’s combines. [27] Rem Koolhaas wanted to give to the structure of CCTV the forces at work with in it. ``The façade itself becomes a visual manifestation of the building structure" [28] .Koolhaas commented `` I am very happy, after years of intense collaboration, that the CCTV HQ building will soon begin to perform its role in the way it is intended." [29] 

Money an independent factor in CCTV HQ:

This project can be an independent innovation that can give an emphasis in China’s development projects. [30] In my way of thinking the CCTV’s economic factor is coming from the government, however it’s a situation where the government pay for that building because it can project the economic growth of China’s economy, and as a result, it can bring foreign investments in the building and in the country, so the building could be considered a projection of an economic development of China. However I can say that this building has the ability to control the ideas through the mass media, control the information that transmits to the people, and control the culture that broad casts in to the outside world. [31] As the China’s state control organization said that ``We have spent billions of dollars not only on the construction of this volumentary flagship building, but also on the expansion of facilities to launch respected international news organizations overseas" [32] From that statement I could say that the central state organization could be totally independent from local small channels due to the bigger goal of accommodate bigger ones. From that part this building could accept foreign investments from interactions companies in order to sustain its economy; the reason is that, from those investments the building can project its concomitant power in the part of financial investments and be totally independent from other agencies. However I can say that politics can also play vital role in the synthesis of the economic power of the building. Politics in China can stimulate the power of the building and power of this country, so the building I would say that can be a projection of the dominance of the Chinese government. So the projection can play vital role, and create an independency in the building’s form and function to the outside world.

However I could say that the element of money in terms of economy can vary from country to country and even from building to building, due to they are independent from each other. I will state that in to Peter Eisenman’s opinion `` an architect could do a CCTV in Turkey instead of say China" [33] I think that we have to think if Turkey had the right economy, culture and political foundations in order to accommodate that kind of a building as CCTV. So the economic factor for CCTV can be considered as an independent because China wanted to project that independency into the rest of the world, so that building attracts investments that made it to be an independent building that could sustains its economy and the economy of the country.

The Client an Independent Factor:

The client in the case of CCTV HQ can be considered an independent factor, due to they wanted from the first step of the concept to make a building which could be an icon for Beijing and for China in a wider scale. I addition to that the client which was the China state television organization was a totally an independent client in terms of political jurisdictions, and funding’s. However they had the ability to change the way the building operates and the form of it as well. So I will refer back to Rem Koolhaas placement about this independency ``Regarding the space for architecture in the Chinese political system and its economy; it remains an authoritarian state and is therefore able to do thinks in a completely different way from Europe" [34] The reason I placed this statement is that not only the country can change the way architecture work, in terms of cultural, and political aspects. I can also change the way people as tourists and local ones see and understand architecture. However this opinion from Rem about China and Chinese people, I would say that changed the way Rem designed the building and the functionality of it. He could connect the lives of people and the expectations of the client in a way that could create a building that could project the way of people leave and fulfill the economical expectations of the client. I will state my thinking with the words that Rem said ``What is interesting about the project is its incredible accumulation of new facilities which can be used for working with the media, a new condition in China, so the media is crucial when thinking about CCTV" [35] 

However from the above statement we can say that the architect can be considered as a totally independent element in that project, due to he made a building that could project the way of people leave in the city to the rest of the world, be an independent in terms of economic factors, because the building can produce and make its own economy. Therefore I could say that by this building will benefit the organization so they can be independent in terms of money, political actions, and other local and foreign organizations.

Why is an independent piece of architecture:

The CCTV can easily be considered an independent part of the architecture. The ground on which I put this building as an independent part is that from the initial planning and colonization, the building can view the independent part of the architecture. From the architect to the user, the building showcases all the different features the state in which the building is built. One of the main reasons as you read above is that the building can view the best energy independent part of architectural design starting from the user and the architect, who had to keep up together with the ideas of customers to be able to design a building which could highlight the culture, economic independence and political power. These different chain activities show that the building may be running as an independent authority however may be preset within the same building which displays all of these acting through the headquarters television broadcast to the world.

Dependent and Independent Projects: Kunsthal Vs CCTV HQ:

So we have two totally different buildings, but we have the same architect. In the first example we have the freedom of movement as the dependent part, and in the second we have the sense of controlling people’s lives for the independent part. So as a result to that the cultural agenda is the one that plays vital role in the final outcome of the building.

Renzo Piano: Tjibaou Cultural Center: A dependent project

The Jean-Marie Tjibaou Cultural Center is located in New Caledonia that is situated in a French territory [36] in the structure of the building there are ten wooden towers referencing to the traditional Kanak local huts (buildings) as well as the surrounding vegetation that complete the image of the entire structure. Furthermore I can say that Renzo’s designing concept projects in the best way the reason of its existence, and makes the building be traditional and depend on the culture in the optimum way, however the ten wooden curved facades are also looking towards the winds that coming from the ocean. I would agree with that because this concept I would say projects in a pure form the cultural identity of the Kanak people. However from the construction we can see that the building totally depends on the surrounding area in order to show its existence, because Renzo designed that building like this, is due to the strong cultural identity of the local people and local area.

Money a dependent factor for Tjibaou:

Tjibaou’s center main source of income is the tourism and the educational element that could sustain the structure and the local economy. Renzo and the client wanted the building to attract tourism and locals, in order to keep in the optimum level their economy. [37] So as we can see the building is totally depending on the economic factor in order for the center to be sustained. However we can say that there are also some other external factors that the building can benefit from them, like; government and other external funding agencies. [38] These agencies can help the building, in terms of brinking tourism, or boost the building with foreign investments in order to sustain its economy. However the government can also play a vital role in the building’s function, like, make commercials about the building, or even project the building in to the rest of the world, in order to keep the tourism and the funding’s of the building in the higher levels. So we can see that the building total dependents on the outside parameters like government, politics, and foreign investments in order to exist, and operate normally.

For instance the local tourism could be a vital helping hand for the center. Apart of that the services that the building provides like; school by brinking foreign and local students in the school in order to work properly, cultural center, and museum, could help the building to sustain its local and wider economy [39] in terms of attracting tourism and local people in the site in order to see and after that project the experience in their countries.

A dependent client for Tjibaou:

The dependency among the client and the architect can be found in this project very easy, because this project can be considered as the outcome of that dependency.

The client’s main concern about this building was to adjust the entire culture if the local people in to that building. In order to succeed with that, the client came up with a competition which helped them to find Renzo in order to start the design process. Therefore the client, which was an organization about the culture of Kanak people which called (Agency pour la development de la Culture Kanak) [40] was about to project the culture of the local tribes into the rest of the world, so that they could attract tourists [41] , however Renzo’s main concern was also how to address the culture into the building. I would say that Renzo depend on the client and on the local people in order to make a concept, which could project the traditional life of the area. In addition to that the ten wooden curved towers that Renzo designed could benefit the local economy by bringing tourists so that they could reach the expectations of the client.

The client however could totally be a dependent in terms of depending on the architect to come up with a concept, or even more to depend on the local residents of the area to give them the information the client and the architect need about the area and their lives. However the client in that project can also represent the place that the local tribes leave, and could also project the relationship with the landscape in order to project the expectations to the architect. As in this building the client stimulates the culture and the expectations of the local people and depends on the architect in order to create this cultural center. So as you can read we have a reaction sequence that projects that dependency among the client and the architect.

The cultural agenda of dependence in the Tjibaou center:

The cultural agenda play vital role in the case of Tjibaou . This building is by its own a cultural symbol for the natives, which project their history and their culture. However the building can be a dependent cultural structure, for instance there are series of huts which stimulate and project the different hierarchical tribes that exist in the area. [42] I could say that the building can be a dependent cultural structure that local people and tourists would come and learn the culture of the area by just entering into the buildings.

However I could say that the dependency in that building are not relate from the local people but it also relates with the rest of the landscape. So we can say that the building also depends on the surrounding landscape in order to project and stimulate the area that is situated [43] . However the building is more about attracting tourists in order to exist and project the cultural agenda. It was about what this Australian place could produce and give to the rest of the world, in terms of cultural identity, new kind of knowledge about local tribes and knowing the local and the traditional ways of living and expanding their knowledge, So this building was all about the culture the knowledge and the tourism.

why depends?

The Shard an Independent Project:

Renzo Piano’s latest building; The Shard the 1.016ft high skyscraper will be the tallest building in the Western Europe. [44] There will be different mixes of restaurants, hotels, residences, offices, and galleries which the mixed used tower will provide. [45] Knowing for his elegant, light and detail oriented building, Piano’s Shard consist of several glass facades that incline inwards but do not meet at the top. [46] The overall shape though for the building inspired by the towering church spires and mast of the ships that once anchored on the Thames, the Shard’s form was generated by the irregular site plan and open to the sky to allow the building to breath naturally. [47] Although piano was not a fan of that building type, when he started on the Shard he says `` Very often skyscrapers are symbols of arrogance and power’’ he also asserts that `` they are about being bigger, taller, and project more power" [48] 

Money an Independent factor for The Shard:

There are different elements that define the Shard as an independent architectural peace of architecture. The city of London however I could say that has been seats of economic strength for generation, but the need of develop modern architecture comes at time [49] the economic growth of the city could withstand a new foreign investment that is going to make a building which will benefit the city of London. However the client was confident `` we have got very strong financial backers, who have provided long-term funding for this building to see us through this recession" [50] so the client is the one that will get benefit from the financial backers in order to earn money and make him an independent factor of the building. In addition to the above stamen I could say that London and economy will benefit from that kind of investment, due to the building meant to be an independent architectural project, the building is about to provide different services in to the users, like restaurants, hotels, foreign companies, and residencies, these different functions of the building, can give the sense that the building could control the way people move, work and communicate, due to the different functions it can be totally independent.

The building is going to be fully occupied and it can easily sustain its economy and be independent from other external funding agencies. I will refer back to Renzo Piano’s statement about the building `` the Shard is a small city inside a building" [51] I could say that the independency is very clear in the Renzo Piano’s statement, the building’s main element is to refer mostly into rich people who will visit the building and use it, like for residence or to place their companies in there. However the politics can also participate in that building, due to the building project the status of the London, the politics can benefit the building in terms of binging tourists, and creating a friendly to investments environment. So I could say that independency in the Shard can easily be observed in the economic element, from the tourism to the political aspects.

Client:

The client is totally independent; the reason is that due to the expectation of the client all the parameters had to be totally independent like the different parts of the building. The client wanted the building to project status and power. In addition to that the Sellar Properties chairman who was the client, wanted to have a mix of different function in the building in order to get benefit from the different services of the building. However the architect I could say that despite his culture and other potentials that drive him, he had to align his culture, his different ways of thinking, so that he can align his thoughts with the expectations of the client. I think that the client and the architect in that project can be considered as independent elements the former because of the different cultural, designing, and way of thinking elements like culture, traditions, and transportation, and the latter in the way of projecting the power the status and the cultural identity into the rest of the world, so that he could attract tourists and foreign investments. Due to the client was a foreign investment he could be considered as an independent element how is going to be benefit from the different parts of the building.

Tjibaou Cultural Center Vs The Shard:

So we have two different types of buildings and two different types of conditions. The Tjibaou Cultural Center can be considered dependent in every part of it that can lead all the different aspects in the dependency, like the cultural agenda, the way of designing the building and in terms of creating tourism and knowledge about the local tribes. The Shard could easily be called an independent peace of architecture. The reason is that the Shard from the client till the usage and from the commercial till the tourism attraction all of these different aspects are totally independent, I could say that this building projects the elements of having the ultimate control of foreign companies, in terms of investments, and creating an environment for the future economy to be fitted in that building, in terms of bringing new investments and new tourists in order to see and occupy the building. However I can also add the fact that this building is also about creating the element of sustain economy, attracting tourists and make having the control of people’s movement and, the way people interact with each other.

Why is this independent?

Conclusion:

To conclude my thinking about these different elements and all these different buildings and architects, I would say that these building that you have just read despite are dependent or independent in terms of economic factors, tourism, cultural agenda, and politics, the architects are also very dependent or independent in a way of putting their willing to design these kinds of concepts. However I personally think that the best form of architecture can be the dependent part, and I will testify why I believe that this form of architecture can be the first one. As you already read the dependency can be found every were from the initial sketches to the inhabitation of the building. I would say that the architect as Rem said had to place themselves in the client’s position and see what the client want from them, so they have to depend on the client in order to create the project, moreover to that the client has to depend on the architect in order to use the building. As you can see from that example the architect and the client have to have some sort of relationship and work as team in order to create architecture. Now from the site of the economic, cultural, and political aspects, all these different elements are extensions of the dependent part, in which all these different parameters take in consideration in order to have a dependent piece of architecture. Let’s take the case of Kunsthal, the gallery, and the cultural museum can be considered a totally dependent part of architecture, the reason is that, initially the client had to depend on the architect in order to have an initial design, however the architect had to depend on the landscape, on the culture, the history, the traditions, and the local communities in order to create an initial concept. Finally the building also had to depend on the tourism, on the culture, and on the external agencies in order to sustain its economy, its iconic status in the outside world as an architectural and cultural piece of architecture, that can project the culture and the history of the city of Rotterdam. So these are the reason that I believe the dependent part of architecture has to be first in order for the architecture to exist and project its optimum icon. Throughout the example I saw you were we can find the dependency and how very important is in the process of the sketch, construction, and inhabitation, in order to attract local people, tourists, and investments.