Study Is Exploratory In Nature Cultural Studies Essay

Research Design: - The research design of the present study is exploratory in nature. The aim of the exploratory research is to develop and fill out as comprehensive and accurate picture of the area of study as condition allow. In our study we set certain objectives for empirical studies. The variables identified for this purpose would be empirically verified by way of relationship between the independent variable that is television and the dependent variables that is the responses of the final year graduate students of different degree colleges.

At the outset we would discuss some of the operational concepts which are to be used in our study. The television in our study is understood as an audio-visual medium of communication. Which is used to telecast various programmes on different channels? By impact we meant the change that the graduate students experienced in their attitudes, perception and behaviour. By viewing/watching we understand that television programmes are watched by college students regularly. The degree college students are those whose names are enrolled in the graduation final year of the respective degree college.

Universe of Study:

The universe of our study comprised of final year graduate students of different colleges that is Govt. College for Women, Rohtak, Pt. Naki Ram Sharma Govt. College, Rohtak, Gaur Brahman Degree College, Rohtak, Saini College, Rohtak, S.J.K. College, Kalanaur, Govt. College, Meham, Govt. College, Dujana, Govt. College, Dubaldhan, Govt. College, Bahadurgarh and Maharaja Agrasen College for Women, Jhajjar.

The reasons for selecting only final year degree college students are:

Taking into consideration the time and resources at our disposal so we decide to select a sample from the B.A/B.Com/B.Sc final year classes students as our respondents. The reason for selecting our respondent from the final year degree classes are:-

The final year students are in an age group where they can be termed as a fully matured youth.

These students by and large are simultaneously devoted to studies, to sports, to the general world events and the mass media because of the fact that they prepare themselves for future employment. Therefore, their experience as compared to the other college students is richer and we can expect mature answers to the questions regarding the socio-cultural impact of television.

Techniques of Data Collection: - The primary and secondary data have been used in our study. The primary data have been directly collected from the final year graduate students of different colleges with the help of questionnaire. The secondary data have been collected from the District Gazetteer, College Offices, Books, Journals, Magazines, Newspaper; Libraries and Internet.

After selecting the college’s authorities were contacted for permission to conduct the study in their colleges. Questionnaire distributed personally to group individual students in a classroom situation. This enabled the researcher to interact with the students and explain the purpose of the study to them. Thus rapport was established with the respondents. The meaning of some questions was explained when doubts were raised but care was taken to see that the respondents do not influenced by the researcher’s comments. The questionnaire was given to 650 respondents out of them 336 male students and 314 female students. Out of 650 questionnaire 114 questionnaire were not filled properly and hence were rejected. Thus the size of the final sample stands at 536 which include 271 male respondents and 265 female respondents. The present study was conducted in 2011.

The survey shall include 10 degree colleges of Rohtak & Jhajjar districts. All these colleges are situated in Rohtak and Jhajjar district and come under the jurisdiction of the Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak.

PILOT STUDY

A pilot study was conducted to review the questionnaire in term of its relevance of the study and to answers the language used, the difficulty and ambiguity of the questions. The primary format was distributed among 100 students in two colleges of Rohtak and Jhajjar districts, namely AIJHM College, Rohtak and Vaish Arya Kanya Mahavidaliya, Bahadurgarh which were not a part of the final study.

The detailed comments offered by the subjects in the pilot study helped to improve the questionnaire. In the questionnaire used for the pilot study the subjects asked to mention the favourite programmes in order of preference. For the convenience of the tabulation, the respondents were asked to make only one most preferred programme on television in the final questionnaire.

The respondents found some statements vague and could not respond properly. The questionnaire used for pilot study consists of statement like television gives information about "Sex" and "Are you indulge in sexual activity" were found irrelevant because they deal with the contents of the programming but not the influenced and hence were deleted. Based on the opinion expressed in the pilot study, question on youth buying behaviour, television make Indian youth more Global, television Vis-a-Vis attitude towards women were incorporated in the final questionnaire.

Thus the lesson derived from the pilot study was used in drafting the final questionnaire by modifying or rejecting some item and adding some new ones.

ABOUT THE QUESTIONNAIRE

The researcher collected the relevant literature and discussed the issues with subject experts. The most important source was brainstorming sessions with the students. These discussions greatly facilitated the researcher in preparing the questionnaire. Questions were presented in a definite order, proceeding from the general to the more specific issues. This order helps the respondents to organize their own thinking and respond logically and objectively.

The questionnaire is broadly divided into five parts which consists of 34 questions with multiple choices. Besides the researcher collected information on demographic factors of the respondents like age, gender, residence, nature of family, family income, category and marital status etc. The first part of the questionnaire consists of 7 questions which seek information about the duration of watching T.V., reason for watching programmes, parent’s reaction, control on remote, preferable time and channels preferences etc.

The second part consist of 13 questions related to the western family values, degeneration of traditional values, T.V promote love marriages, inter-caste and inter-community marriage, gender divide, gender parity etc. Third part of the questionnaire consists of 4 questions like sexual promiscuity, extra marital relationship; reality shows promoting obscenity in the society and adult contents on T.V programmes. Part four of the questionnaire deals with Violent/Aggressive behaviour consists 5 questions related to the T.V promote aggressive behaviour, television is a problem, AXN, UTV Action etc. promote violence in society and adventures behaviour. Part five of the questionnaire i.e. Lifestyle/Materialistic Outlook consists 5 question related to the changing fashion scenario, materialism, individualism, Indian youth becoming more global citizens etc.

DATA PROCESSING

The researcher has used the statistical package for the social science (SPSS Version 13.0) for analyzing the data. Besides, excel and MS Word was used for designing charts, tables, graphs and composing the thesis script. For data entry and analysis the researcher had taken a very rigorous one week training course at IIMC, New Delhi, particularly to learn SPSS. The researcher by experience felt that without the knowledge of computer in general and understanding the SPSS in particular, this research study might have not been successfully accomplished.

The data was analyzed mainly in terms of comparison of Light, Moderate and Heavy viewers on each dependent variable. Total T.V. viewing varies depending upon the demographic differences. It varies from nation to nation and culture to culture. For example, German households as an average watch six hours and twelve minutes of television per day (Darschin, 1997),2 whereas, American households watch T.V for an average of nearly seven hours a day (Neilson Media Research, 1995)3

VARIABLES OF THE STUDY

The study has independent and dependent variables:

Independent Variables

"Exposure to television" was an independent variable of the study. It means the time spend on viewing television by the respondents. Therefore greater the time spend against television greater will be the exposure.

Dependent Variables

"Impact on lives of youth" as the dependent variable is explained below:

Inter-caste and inter-community marriages

Appearance and style

Expenditure on consumer goods

Cultural practices i.e. food habit, language, dress, tradition and religion

Conceptualization

The major terms used in the study are defined below:

Television

Formal

The equipment consists of a camera, which converts the image into electrical impulses; these are transmitted by radio to a receiver which converts the impulses by means of a cathode-ray tube into a corresponding image on the screen.

Operational

In this research television referred only to those television networks which were working in India, and transmitting local and foreign channels through coaxial or fibre optic cables, DTH, IPTV etc.

Level of viewing

The number of hours devoted to viewing television programmes per day determines the level of viewing for this study. The researcher divided the viewers into three categories i.e. heavy, moderate and low viewers, instead of two because the main aim of the study was to compare two extremes i.e. heavy and low viewers.

Heavy viewer

The respondents who watch television channels for 4 and more than 4 hours per day are considered as heavy viewer.

Moderate viewer

The respondents who watch television channels for more than two but less than four hours per day are considered as moderate viewer.

Low viewer

The respondents who watch television channels up to two hours per day are considered as low viewer.

1.1 Table: Viewers category by hours of viewing.

Viewers Category

Hours of viewing per day

Heavy viewer

4 and more than 4 hours

Moderate viewer

More than 2 but less than 4 hours

Low viewer

Up to 2 hours

Youth

Formal

‘The period of youth as the period of transition from childhood to full adult status in the society’. The youth is not yet fully acknowledged as an adult status, a full member of the society. Rather, he or she is being prepared or is preparing for such adulthood. (citied in Vijayalakshmi. 2005. P.66)

Operational

In this dissertation, the researcher has defined youth as the age of 18-25 years old. The researcher has deliberately avoided those youth who have reached this age bracket but are studying in any college. The reason of keeping them out of the sample was that they might get affected from their peer group instead of directly viewing of television. Hence, the researcher considered only those 18-25 years old youth who were studying in colleges.

Sexual Norms

Sexual norms can prescribe sex related roles. Norms are rules for behaving. Examination of sex norms in Western and Indian societies indicates a clear-cut disparity between the two cultures. In India, sex is a part of marriage; it is not allowed before and outside marriage. In general, strict adherence to this norm has been demanded of women while men are often allowed to get away with greater freedom with regard to this norm. (citied in Vijayalakshmi. 2005. P.61)

Lifestyles

Lifestyle is defined as the integration of decisions in the realms of career, personal and family relationship and leisure that result in guiding principles which direct one’s life. Lifestyle also includes clothing, food, accent and leisure pursuits. ibid

Materialistic

Materialistic is defined as conforming to the standards and conventions of the middle class; "a bourgeois mentality" occupying a socio-economic position intermediate between those of the lower classes and the wealthy.

Family Norms

Family norms refer to the standards of behaviour and rules of conduct expected by the members of the family in their relationships with the other members of the family. Such norms are generally implicit and informal and require no formal codification.

Demographic Profile of the Study Area

Profile of Rohtak District

Rohtak is one of the 21 districts of the Haryana States, India. The district headquarter is situated in Rohtak town at a distance of about 72 km from delhi. The district derives its name from its headquarter town Rohtak earlier known as Rohtashgarh. Traditionally, it is named after Raja Rohtas son of Raja Harishchandra in whose name the city is said to have built. It is also claimed that town derived its name from the Roherra tree called Rohitak in Sanskrit. It is said that before the town came into existence, it was the site of a forest of Rohitak trees and hence its name Rohtak. The Arya Samaj Movement has become popular in Rohtak in its own way accelerated the desire for reform starting in about 1890 with a mandir in Rohtak. The Arya Samaj Movement soon spread to Sanghi, Meham and Jhajjar. It laid great stress on starting educational institutions and removing untouchability. Its programmes created a new social consciousness spread gradually from urban to rural areas.4

Area & Population

The district is having an area of 1668.47 square kms. Population of the district as per 2011 census is 1058683. The density of population is 466 per sq. kilometer. There are 146 villages and 151 Panchayats in the district. The rural population is 613864 and urban population is 444819. As per 2011 census, rural population constitutes 57.98% of the total population of the district. The literacy rate of Rohtak district is 74.56%, of which 84.29% are male and 63.19% females. In Meham tehsil 80.11% male and 54.14% female were literate and in Rohtak tehsil 85.28% male and 65.32% female literate. 5

Agriculture Products/Industries of the Area:

The economy of the district is primarily agriculture i.e. agrarian economy. About 51.89% of the total workers are engaged in agriculture and allied activities, 7.68% in cottage & household industries and the rest are engaged in other activities. Out of total geographical area of the district, 83% is under cultivation. The main crops are wheat, gram, sugarcane & bajra.

Haryana State Industrial and Infrastructure Development Corporation (HSIIDC) has developed an Industrial Model Township (IMT). The following companies are in IMT.

Asian Paints Limited

Maruti Suzuki’s Research and Development Plant

Hitech Plastics Limited

Footwear Design and Development Institute

Rohtak has a class one municipal committee. There are number of degree colleges, engineering colleges, polytechnics and industrial training institute for boys and girls. The city is linked by roads with Delhi, Sonepat, Hisar, Sirsa, Jind, Bhiwani and Jhajjar.

Profile of Jhajjar District

Jhajjar is one of the 21 districts of Haryana States, India. Jhajjar district was carved out of Rohtak district on July 15, 1997. The district headquarter is situated in Jhajjar town at a distance of about 65 km from Delhi. The town is said to have been founded by one Chhaju and Chhajunagar was changed to Jhajjar. It is also derived from Jharnaghar, a natural fountain. A third derivation is from Jhajjar a water vessel, because the surface drainage of the country for miles around runs into the town as into a sink. Other towns in the district are Bahadurgarh and Beri. Bahadurgarh was founded by Rathi Jats and formerly known as Sharafabad. It is situated 29 km from Delhi and had developed into an important industrial centre.

Location Description:

The district lies in the south east of Haryana State. Jhajjar district is one among the important districts of Haryana State and the district Headquarter lies on the National Highway No. 71 and is situated at a distance of 35 km from Delhi, the national capital of India. The District lies between 28o33’ N and 28o42’ S latitude and 72o28’45" W and 76o84’15" E longitude. On its north lies the Rohtak subdivision of Rohtak District and in the South lies the subdivision Rewari of Rewari District. In the East lies Tikri Border of National Capital of India and the West lies Charki Dadri subdivision of Bhiwani District.6

Area and Population:

The district is having an area of 1834 square kms which is 3.77% of the total area of the state. The total population of the district is 956907 (514303 males and 442604 females) as per the census 2011. Rural population is 74.60% of the total population. Population density is 522 people per sq. Km. Population of Jhajjar town is 48447. The other towns are Bahadurgarh with population of 170426 & Beri with population of 16162. Jhajjar has a sex ratio of 861 females for every 1000 males and literacy rate of 80.8%. In the 2011 National Census, it was found that Jhajjar district has the lowest sex ratio in India of the 0-6 group, with just 774 girls to 1000 boys. Two villages in Jhajjar have extremely low gender ratio: Bahrana and Dimana have gender ratios of 378 girls to 1000 boys and 444 girls to 1000 boys’ respectively.7

Agriculture Products/Industries of the Area:

The economy of the district is primarily agriculture e.g. agrarian economy. About 57.88% of total workers (392527) are engaged in agriculture and allied activities. Out of total geographical area of the district only 77.38% are in under cultivation. The main crops in rabi season are Wheat, Gram, Barley, Mustard, Sugar Cane and in Kharif season are Cotton, Paddy, Jawar, Bajra, Gawar, Arhar and Moong.

On the Industrial front district is now witnessing Industrial growth at faster pace by providing good infrastructure to the industries. At present 1477 small scale Industrial units are working. Besides it 37 large and medium units also exist in the district. Mainly M/s Surya Roshni Ltd., Hindustan Sanitary Wares & Industries Ltd., Parle, Hindustan National Glass & Industries Ltd. Are prestigious industrial units in the district?8

Special Economic Zone (SEZ): There is proposal to set up SEZ on 25000 acre adjoining Gurgaon district. This will open up new avenues for industrial and economical activities by providing infrastructure of International level.

PROFILE OF M.D.UNIVERSITY, ROHTAK

Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak was established in 1976 as a residential University with the objective of promoting higher education and research in the fields of environmental, ecological and life sciences. The University is located at Rohtak in the state of Haryana about 75 kms from Delhi on Delhi-Hisar National Highway (NH-10), and is about 240 kms from Chandigarh, the state capital. It is well connected both by rail as well as road. Rohtak is the education hub of the State with excellent facilities for education in the fields of knowledge.

The University campus spread over an area of over 665.44 acres is well laid with state-of-the-art buildings and magnificent road network and presents a spectacle of harmony in architecture and natural beauty. Presently Maharshi Dayanand University is a teaching-cum-affiliating University with 35 Post Graduate Departments (UTDs), 11 Faculties, one Post Graduate Regional Centre in Rewari. Directorate of Distance Education, 692 affiliated colleges, one Off-Campus Centre Institute of Law and Management Studies, Gurgaon. Affiliated colleges include 84 Degree colleges, 283 Education colleges, 80 Engineering colleges, 34 Management colleges, 4 Law colleges, 2 B.P.ED/C.P.ED colleges and 205 D.ED colleges.

The Directorate of Distance Education is providing quality education to the students with its traditional UG/PG courses as well as Information Technology and Management courses. The University has established Sir Chhotu Ram Chair, Dr. B.R.Ambedkar Chair, Jawahar Lal Nehru Chair, Maharshi Dayanand Chair, Maharshi Balmiki Chair, Pt. Lakhmi Chand Chair and Ch. Ranbir Singh Chair to conduct research on the life and contributions of these eminent and illustrious Indians in their respective spheres.9

The University has a SC/ST cell for the welfare of the students of the reserved categories. This cell works for effective implementation of policies and programmes related to the welfare of SC/ST students.

PROFILE OF THE COLLEGES UNDER STUDY

GOVT. COLLEGE FOR WOMEN, ROHTAK

The G.C.W. Rohtak is one of the oldest and premier institutes of Haryana. It came into existence in the year 1959. Initially it was a Govt. Co-Educational Institute which was later converted to a Govt. Women College, the first in Haryana, with a vision to make it a centre of excellence to fulfil the educational needs of the women of this area. Since then, it is providing value based knowledge and evolving young girls into cultured and responsible citizens.

The institution in its present form started functioning in 1974. At that time it was named Indira Chakraborty College after the name of the wife of the Governor of Haryana. Sh. B.N.Chakraborty. Subsequently the original name Government College for Women was restored to it though it is still popular as I.C.College.

At present there are 110 faculty members and about 5000 students getting education in different streams as Humanities, Science and Commerce. The college offers professional courses also like P.G.Diploma in Nutritions & Dietetics, M.Sc (Computer Science), B.Com (Vocational), P.G.D.C.A, B.C.A, B.B.A, Hon’s in Hindi, English, Sanskrit, Physics and Psychology. It has been awarded "Best College Award" by Honourable Education Minister of Haryana in 1997-98. It also gives great importance to personality development programmes like NCC, NSS, Sports, Industrial Training and "Earn While You Learn". The college has a well equipped library, three computer laboratories, play ground and a gymnasium hall. It also has two girls hostel with approximate 180 seats. These provide all the facilities, security and good atmosphere best suited for studies to the girls coming from far-off places.10

NAKI RAM SHARMA GOVT. COLLEGE, ROHTAK

Pt. Neki Ram Sharma Govt. College, Rohtak provides quality education of Graduate and Honours level courses to both boys and girls. This college was established as Govt. Intermediate College in 1924. It was upgraded to Govt. Degree College in 1944. The administrative control of this College was taken over by Maharashi Dayanand University, Rohtak in July 1980. The college was named as University College, Rohtak. The Haryana State Government took back the administrative control of this college in April 2006. Now this college is known as Pandit Naki Ram Sharma Government College, Rohtak.

The college offers the following courses like B.A, B.Sc, B.Com Pass Course; B.A, B.Sc, B.Com Honours course in English, Hindi, History, Political Science, Geography, Economics, Maths, Chemistry and commerce; B.C.A, B.B.A and Functional English. Adequate hostel facility provided to the girls and boys students. The college library equipped with over one lac books caters to the intellectual needs of the teachers and students community. In accordance with the Motto "Still Achieving, Still Pursuing", the college attempts to in still in the students the spirit of acquiring greater knowledge as also developing their moral sense to achieve success in all pursuits of life.11

GOVERNMENT COLLEGE, MEHAM

Government College, Meham was initially started in 1981 as a private college namely Chaubisee Degree College (Affiliated with Maharishi Dayanand University, Rohtak). The main aim of starting this college was to give education to the rural youth with a view to making them enlightened and responsible citizens. It was taken over by Government of Haryana in 1987 and renamed as Govt. College, Meham. The college has 20 acres of land and it is situated in the heart of Haryana having lush green pollution free campus.

The college has administrative Block, 14 class rooms, well furnished Computer Laboratory, Science laboratories and Geography, psychology and Defence Studies Laboratory and courses offered are B.A/B.Com.12

S.J.K. COLLEGE, KALANAUR

Sat Jinda Kalyana College, Kalanaur lies in the western part of Rohtak district in Haryana on the Rohtak-Bhiwani road at a distance of twenty two kilometres from Rohtak. The college is not situated in Kalanaur proper but lies on an intersection on the highway at a distance of three kilometres from Kalanaur town. This is the only college of higher education between Rohtak and Bhiwani. The college offers Under-Graduate courses in Humanities, Commerce and U.G.C. sponsored add on courses.

Mehant Jamna Dass Ji the founder of this institution was a pragmatic visionary, a visualiser of dreams. Education and particularly education for Women was very close to his heart. He paid the fees for the girls students of this college for many years before Haryana Govt. Gave them this facility. The college has proved a boon to the poor people who could not have even dreamt of higher education for their children. Today Kalanaur cannot be imagined without S.J.K. College for it has become a part of the history and culture of this area and lives of the people. The college motto is "Vidya-Vivek-Vikas". Vidya i.e. knowledge illuminates the path, showing the way to intellectual enlightenment (Vivek) and thus development (Vikas).13

SAINI COLLEGE, ROHTAK

In the world of education Saini Education Society strived with full dedication for the promotion of higher education. In the view of that, Saini College (Co-ED) Rohtak was established in 2001. The college is moving on the path of progress from the first day consistently. Presently the college has two faculties namely Arts and Commerce up to graduation level. The college is affiliated with M.D.University, Rohtak.

The college has double storey building situated in a pollution free atmosphere near the northern bye-pass and conveniently approachable from the railway station, local bus-stand and all corners of the city and is equipped with richly stored library, computer lab and all modern educational facilities. The college imparting value –based education and inculcating sense of discipline, self reliance and responsible citizenship are thrust areas of the education in this college.14

GAUR BRAHMAN DEGREE COLLEGE, ROHTAK

Gaur Brahman Degree College, Rohtak was established in 1970 by Gaur Brahman Vidya Pracharini Sabha (Regd.) headed by Late Sh. Pt. Bhagwat Dayal Sharma the first Chief Minister of Haryana. The college is situated at the bank of the ancient holy tank of ‘Gau Karan’ Rohtak. Gaur Barahman Pracharani Sabha (Regd.) has been accredited with selfless services for the development of society through education, preaching and practicing noble value of truth, integrity and hard work.

The college proudly runs bachelor courses in arts, commerce, B.Com. (Voc.) and B.B.A. Taking in to consideration, the need of professional and job oriented education in present scenario. Bachelor of computer application was introduced in 1998. The college is adorned by four huge building surrounding by lush green loan.15

GOVERNEMENT COLLEGE, DUBALDHAN

Government College, Dubaldhan started as a private Degree College in 1973. The foundation stone of the college was laid on April 20, 1973 by the then Union Home Minister Sh. Uma Shanker Dikshit. The land for the college was donated by the villagers and the college building came up due to the financial contributions by the citizen of the villages like Dubaldhan, Majra, Chimini, Beri and other neighbouring village or also other philanthropists from all over India.

The college was taken over by Government of Haryana on January 14, 1980. Thereafter, the college is functioning as a Govt. College. The college is affiliated to Maharshi Dayanand University, Rohtak. The college offered B.A course.

Government College, Dubaldhan caters primarily to the students of rural background hailing from villages; Dubaldhan, Majra, Bigowa, Chimini, Siwana, Dharana and Beri etc. The college playing an important role in disseminating education to rural students; especially girl’s students.16

GOVERNMENT COLLEGE, JHAJJAR

Government College, Jhajjar affiliated to Maharshi Dayanand University (M.D.U), Rohtak. The college has been imparting education as per curriculum provided by the M.D.University, Rohtak. This institution evolved as an undergraduate college under the faculty of Arts but now it has 18 teaching departments under the faculties of Arts, Science and Commerce. 18

MAHARAJA AGRASEN COLLEGE FOR WOMEN, JHAJJAR

Maharaja Agarsen College for Women, Jhajjar was founded in 1984 by a devoted team of Agarwal Community. It is affiliated to Maharishi Dayanand University, Rohtak. The sincere and dedicated efforts of the founder President Sh. Bishan Sarup Goyal, the then Local M.L.A Sh. Banarsi Dass Balmiki, blessing of the Vice-Chancellor and Government Authorities brought the dreams come true with the establishment of Maharaja Agersen College for Women, Jhajjar in July, 1984.

Since its inception, the college has been doing its best to cater to the needs of potential women students of not only the town but also of the surrounding areas whose female population would have remained largely uneducated. The college boasts of owning 45 rooms/halls etc., consisting class rooms, spacious seminar hall, well equipped computer labs linked with wi-fi internet connectivity.19