The Concept Of Culture Cultural Studies Essay
The concept of culture
The notion of culture (from the Latin verb colere, "grow") belongs to Western history. The use of this term was then extended to those behaviors that imposed a "cure to the gods," is how the term "cult."
The modern concept of culture can be understood as the body of knowledge considered essential and which are transmitted from generation to generation. However, the term culture in the Italian language denotes two main meanings differ considerably:
Or a humanistic conception of classical culture as individual training, an activity that allows you to "cultivate" the human soul, and in this sense it is a fundamental quantity for which a person may be more or less educated.
An anthropological conception or modern presents culture as the diverse range of customs, beliefs, attitudes, values, ideals and habits of different populations or societies in the world. Regards both the individual and the community to which he belongs. In this sense, the concept is obviously declinable the plural, assuming the existence of different cultures, and is typically assumed the existence of a culture of each ethnic group or social grouping significant, and the membership of such groups is closely related to sharing of cultural identity.
According to a classical conception of culture is in the process of development and mobilization of human faculties which is facilitated by the assimilation of the work of authors and artists and important progress related to the character of the modern age.
According to the anthropological concept of culture - or civilization - taken in its broadest sense ethnological is "that complex whole which includes knowledge, belief, art, morals, law, custom, and any other powers and habit acquired by man as a member of society, "according to the famous definition English anthropologist Edward Tylor (from Primitive Culture, 1871).
Over the years, the anthropological definition of culture has changed, according to the anthropologist Ulf Hannerz, "a culture is a structure of meaning that travels on communication networks that are not localized in individual territories."
The definition of UNESCO considers culture as "a set of specific characteristics of a society or a social group in a spiritual, material, intellectual and emotional."
The popular use of the word culture in many Western societies may simply reflect the layered character of these societies, many people use this word to refer to consumer goods, and activities such as cooking, art or music. Others use the term "high culture" to distinguish it from an alleged "low" culture, meaning the latter set of consumer goods that do not belong to the elite.
The culture in the anthropological sense consists of:
Systems of norms and beliefs explicit, elaborated in more or less formalized.
Customs and habits acquired by humans for the simple fact of living in certain communities, thus including ordinary shares of everyday life.
Artifacts of human activity, from art to real everyday items and everything related to material culture, knowledge necessary for life.
The characteristics that define the culture in the conception descriptive anthropology are mainly three:
Culture is learned and can not be reduced to the biological dimension of man. For example, the skin color is not a cultural trait but a genetic trait.
Culture is the totality of social and physical which is the work of man.
Culture is shared within a group or society. It is distributed evenly within those groups or companies.
Why action or trait can be defined as "cultural" must therefore be shared by a group. This does not mean that a phenomenon "cultural" must necessarily be shared by the whole population: it is necessary to leave space for the normal individual variability.
Also with regard to changes in behavior between individual and individual in a society, however, it is possible to identify its limits circumscribed by social norms that govern that particular group.
Frequently, individuals belonging to a particular culture do not perceive their behavior governed by these rules requiring what behavior is allowed and what is not.
In anthropology, the set of social rules (commonly called "ideal") are defined cultural models ideal.
Culture is: A set of models (ideas, symbols, actions, provisions) FOR and WITH:
In all cultures there is a model (eg, cleaning, decoration, law), a model through which you think something. The models of models to generate, guiding models to different way of acting
Operating permits an approach to the world in a practical sense and intellectual and a related environmental adaptation. Therefore allows to pass from the ideal operations.
selective: it performs a selection of functional models in this
dynamics: is maintained over time, but is not fixed. Interacting with other cultures there are cambiamiamenti each other.
stratified and diversified within the same company you notice cultural differences based on age, gender, income, etc.., and these differences affect social behavior. Depending on the society there is also a different distribution of culture.
The culture has inside of the gradients. Gramsci, schematizing spoke of hegemonic culture (which has the power to define its borders) and subordinate culture that not having such power, has no chance to define themselves. For example, the division between Hutu and Tutsi was born after the Belgian colonization. In modern society, while being present on the language and cultural differences and ethnic origin, they are tolerated because it is favored cultural integration through compulsory education and social class do not have rigid boundaries: Baumann even speaks of "liquid modernity."
based on communication: the culture originated through a constant exchange
holistic: (from Olos, integer) and is then formed by interdependent elements between them. For example there is a link between religion and the power of a country and as a result the economy. According to some anthropologists, some cultures are more holistic because they realize most of this interdependence between elements (eg the division in the Indian caste and the close link between them).
porous: there are continuous incursions between cultures and it is difficult to establish a true limit, a real boundary between cultures.
Culture is not external apparatus of life. And 'practical knowledge related to individual experience (nihil in intellectu quod non fuerit in sensu), also became a theoretical conceptual network through increasingly complex according to the contribution of the external world, the experience of others, than the authors-enhancers sent them and their world (of their time). It is done both individual and social. Social but also in the negative patterns that come from outside, precisely because they pose as models, make us passive if you give us the illusion of having found the meaning and even the goal to attain. Rather than imitation, dynamic search of improvement, it is often mere seduction. In the social aspects of the culture apparatus there is more outward stimulus to the personality of each, plus paternalism and padreternismo that true liberation. More competition that stimulus at best: we are the first, we are unique, we are the best. In other words there is more authenticity and self-importance that development. (Lucia degli Scalzi) Fritjof Capra is the culture of a social network as a cell with a more defined core cultural and porous borders. Depending on their values a culture can be opened or closed, as well as a cell accepts some elements and not others.