Flouting The Maxim Of Quantity English Literature Essay

1.But,just when matters were at their height, and threatening to remain so, Mr. Pickwick found a powerful assistant in the old lady, who, evidently much struck by the mode in which he had advocated her niece’s cause, ventured to approach Mr. Benjamin Allen with a few comforting reflections, of which the chief were, that after all, perhaps, it was well it was no worse, the least said the soonest mended, and upon her word she did not know that it was so very bad after all,… .

Pickwick says this quotation. He makes a reference to this proverb the least said the soonest mended to tell the old lady, Arabella's aunt that she is the reason that drives Ben Allen, Arabella's brother, to quarrel with his aunt's servant thinking that he is her accomplice. She does not know how to use the proper words to tell Ben that his sister has run away and married Nathaniel Winkle. Dickens wants to show how direct words can lead to big fights. So, the indirect way of the proverb flouted the quantity maxim. The less information in which the proverb gave with relation to context make the talk uninformative.

2. Gang awa to Lunnun afoot! cried John, in amazement.

Every step of the way, replied Nicholas. I should be many steps further on by this time, and so goodbye!

Nay noo, replied the honest countryman, reining in his impatient horse, ‘stan’ still, tellee. Hoo much cash hast thee gotten?

Not much said Nicholas, colouring, but I can make it enough. Where there’s a will, there’s a way, you know. (Nicholas Nickleby, 235)

Nicholas Nickleby says this quotation to John Browdie. Once more, Nickleby expresses his feelings and intention through an impressive proverb. Dickens, through this proverb, succeeds in creating a pathetic character. Despite the hard conditions, Nickleby is still hopeful. This mixed feeling of optimism and deprivation is Dickens' intention in this novel.

When John asked Nicholas how much cash he has gotten? Nicholas said no much and then he told him that he could make it enough do. The lexical expression will is not enough to assume that he will certainly get money. The speaker of this proverb flouted the quantity maxim; he gave little information to clarify how to get money. In his proverb, Nickolas asserts there will a way if he has the will, but this claim is not always true. So, his saying seems ostensible .Therefore, he flouted the quality maxim.

3. The fact is, I closed with the thing in a mad and sanguine manner, said Martin, and the less said about it the better for me. Mark, here, hadn’t a voice in the matter.

Well! But he hadn’t a voice in any other matter, had he? returned Mr. Bevan: laughing with an air that showed his understanding of Mark and Martin too.

Not a very powerful one, I am afraid, said Martin with a blush. But live and learn, Mr. Bevan! Nearly die and learn: and we learn the quicker. (Martin Chuzzlewit, 761)

Martin says this quotation to Mark. Martin shows how through life one can get experience. Learning continues since life continues. When he tells Mark to look at Mr. Bevan, though he is old, he still learns. This is Dickens' reference to the importance of education. Education is the only thing that can be kept forever.

The proverb here is so short occurred as a declarative sentence. The lexical expression learn is a result of lexical expression live. The speaker didn’t give appropriate information required to this conversation. Live and learn is a true to anyone but in the context the speaker here flouted the quantity maxim, Martin should speak perfectly in order the conversation be informative.

4……Hush, Susan! If you please! said Florence. Perhaps can have the goodness to tell us where Captain Cutlle lives, ma’am as he don’t live here.

Who says he don’t live here? retorted the implacable MacStinger.I said it wasn’t Cap’en Cuttle’s house---and it ain’t his house-and forbid it, that it ever should be his house---for Cap’en Cuttle don’t know how to keep a house---and don’t deserve to have a house---it’s my house---and when I let the upper floor to Cap’en cuttle,oh I do a thankless thing, and cast pearls before swine!(Dombey and Son,351)

MacStinger says this quotation to Florence, Dombey's neglected daughter when she with her maid, Susan Nipper asks about captain cuttlle. After her stepmother, Florence also runs away from the house because of his father's ill treatment. She is obliged to live with captain cuttlle. MacStinger explains the best way to behave towards certain persons like captain cuttlle by the help of this proverb cast pearls before swine. By this she makes the meaning closer to Florence.

When Florence inquired where Captin Cutlle lives, MacStinger (Captin cuttlle’s landlady) gave more information than the conversation required. The coordinator and generated the proverb to manage with the surrounding sentences to flouted the quantity maxim. In the same time the proverb seemingly obscure, due the obscure expression phrase cast pearls cause ambiguity to interpret the context;so the speaker flouted the manner maxim (avoid obscure expressions).Furthermore, the speaker flouted the relation maxim, the is no link between the speaker saying and Florence inquiring.

5. " 'cent per cent was the lowest of it, I believe; but the Bank was at the other end of the world, and tumbled into space, for what I know; anyhow, it fell to pieces, and never will and never can pay sixpence; and Betsey's sixpences were all there, and there's an end of them. Least said, soonest mended!' (David cooperfield, 372)

Betsey Trotwood says this quotation to David and Agnes, his close friend and later wife. She reveals certain points about her history with money to end her speech with the proverb Least said, soonest mended. She intentionally, does not want to talk much about the hard incidents; so that she can forget them. In this case Miss.Betsey flouted the quantity maxim. Looking to the structure of the proverb, we find it independent, thus no grammatical was found in relation to the context. The topic of the proverb is opposite to what the context of the quotation talk about; therefore the speaker here also flouted the relation maxim.

6. Mr. Woodcourt rather sternly rejoined that he was glad to hear it.

"I wish, sir", said Mr. Vholes,"to leave a good name behind me. Therefore I take every opportunity of openly stating to a friend of Mr.C. how Mr. C. is situated. As to myself, sir, the labourer is worthy of his hire. If I undertake to put my shoulder to the wheel, I do it, and I earn what I get. I am here for that purpose. My name is painted on the door outside, with that object."(Bleak House, 851)

Mr. Vholes, the lawyer, says this quotation to Allen Woodcourt who loves Esther. Mr. Vholes is a direct man who asks for his fees as a starting point through the proverb the labourer is worthy of his hire. This is the second to the proverb. This is an emphasis to the significance of giving the workers their worthy salaries.

The proverb as it occurred of declarative sentence consisted with other sides of the context to break the conversation. The speaker gave more than the context need. So, the speaker flouted the quantity maxim

7.’A bargain." said Mr. Woodcourt." Do as much by me in return."

"Oh! You," returned Richard," you can pursue your art for its own sake, and can put your hand upon the plough and never turn, and can strike a purpose out of anything. You and I are very different creatures."

He spoke regretfully and lapsed for a moment into his weary condition.

"Well, well!" he cried, shaking it off. "Every thing has an end. We shall see! So you will take me as I am, and make the best of me?"(Bleak House, 852-853)

Richard Carstone says this quotation to Woodcourt. Richard wants to take his chance in this world. He tells Carstone "Take me as I am, and make me the best of me." Woodcourt refuses because he does not trust Carstone. Carstone uses the proverb every thing has an end as a means of persuasion, and he really succeeds, for time is worthy to prove who is loyal and who is not. The role of the proverb here is persuasion. When he said this proverb he flouted the quantity maxim he didn’t tell much about his claim. So, less information make the conversation formally uninformative. The pronoun every thing seems obscure, there is no link with the context in this case, the speaker also flouted the manner maxim..

8. Mrs. Joe was a very clean housekeeper, but had an exquisite art of making her cleanliness more uncomfortable and unacceptable than dirt itself. Cleanliness is next to Godliness and some people do the same by their religion. (Great Expectations, 32)

Pip, the narrator, says this quotation. He describes how his sister is clean. But, Dickens, here, at the tongue of Pip and through the proverb and next sentence makes a sharp indirect attack on religion and religious men portraying how cleanness should be of soul and conscience. He wants to say that the cleanness is not just to clean the things of house, but the human beings should be clean in his/her hearts and in their behavior with others referring to her bad treatment with him and her husband. When Pip said cleanliness is next to Godliness he flouted the quantity maxim due he introduced less information to illustrate how the cleanliness is next to Godliness, and how some other people do with their religious.

9. Well! cried my sister, with a mollified glance at Mr. Pumblechook." She might have had the politeness to send that message at first, but it’s better late than never. And what did she give young Rantipole here? (Great Expectations, 140)

Mrs. Joe says this quotation to Mr. Pumblechook expressing her disagreement with Miss Havisham's lifestyle. Because Pumblechook is responsible for taking Pip to play with Estella, Havisham's adopted girl. Mrs. Joe feels shy of criticizing Havisham's directly. So, the proverb better late than never is used to express the feelings of disagreement. As for Dickens, it is a public advice to do the intended action even if it is late because does it better than never do it at all. Grammatically the context is cohesive .The coordinator but link the proverb with the previous sentences. Mrs. Joe speak with intentionally expressing his feeling giving little to say why she disagreement .Mrs. Joe here flouted the quantity maxim, short utterance is not enough to fulfill observance the quantity maxim.

3.1.2.1.2 Flouting the maxim of quality

10…..in the pride of his heart, to boast should be his daughter’s property when she found a man to her mind. I repeat it, to be matter of profound astonishment and intense wonder, that Nathaniel Pipkin should have had the temerity to cast his eyes in this direction. But love is blind, and Nathaniel had a cast in his eye … (The Pickwick Papers, 328)

Pickwick says this quotation to Wardle and Trudle. He narrates the tale of Nathanial Pipkin who is deceived by love. His love for Maria's father's money blinds his eyes from the reality that Maria does not love him. So, metaphorical Pickwick uses this proverb to refer to Nathanial's mental blindness because of love.

Cooperative principle proposed that in order the conversation to be informative, the speaker saying should be true and not to be lacked the evidence. The lexical expression love is a conscious case whereas blind is a status satisfactory .Both of them can not coordinate with each other; it is imposable for love to be blind. In this situation, Pickwick flouted the quality maxim. Simultaneously, the speaker flouted the manner maxim. The lexical expression blind seems to be stranger to the context, so it caused ambiguity in interpretation of the utterance due it probable more than one meaning.

11. As a display of fancy-shooting, it was extremely varied and curious, as an exhibition of firing with any precise object, it was, upon the whole, perhaps a failure. It is an established axiom, that ‘every bullet has its billet.’.’ If it apply in an equal degree to shot, those of Mr. Winkle were unfortunate foundlings… .(The Pickwick Papers, 361)

Pickwick says this quotation to Winkle. He intends to tell Winkle that it is necessary to put plans in advance to know what to do, how to do it and when and where do it. Planning is important in getting the desired results. Pickwick's advice is more effective with the presence of this proverb because it conveys Pickwick's sincere feelings toward Winkle. The speaker continues to speak and follows with the proverb. His saying is untrue he doesn’t give details to be his axiom confident on bullet has own billet. So he flouted the quality maxim.

12. Mr.Snodgrass was the first to break the astonished silence. He looked steadily at Mr.Grummer for a brief space, and then said emphatically, this is a private room, sir. A private room.

Mr.Grummer shook his head, and replied, no room’s private to his Majesty when the street doo’s once passed. That’s law. Some people maintains that an Englishman’s house is his castle. That’s. (The Pickwick Papers, 468)

Gummer says this quotation to Snodgrass. Actually, Gummer deliberately uses the proverb to tell him indirectly that home is "when your friends and family are" and not necessarily to be a real house made of bricks. Because of this proverb, Gummer succeeds in conveying his feelings of pleasure to have a friend like Snodgrass, on the one hand. And Dickens also succeeds in showing that the majority of the Victorians are strangers though they are at homes because of the scientific developments and social thoughts like Marxism or Capitalism. According to Grice’s maxims, the user should present what he believes in adequate evidence. What people maintain is not factual to be tackled by the speaker as a worthy replying to the conversation. The metaphorical way of Mr. Grummer flouted the quality maxim.

13. Here is the letter for Ralph, said Nicholas, and here the key. When you come to me this evening, not a word of last night. Ill news travels fast, and they will know it soon enough. Have you heard if he was much hurt? (Nicholas Nickleby, 602-603)

Nickleby says this quotation to Noggs. Nickleby hands Noggs a letter and key to be given to Ralph. This means there will be a meeting between Noggs and Ralph. Due to the tension between Nickleby and Ralph, Nickleby indirectly warns Moggs not to say even "a word of last night". Because Nickleby is careful about others' feelings, he uses this proverb Ill news travels fast in order not to hurt Moggs' feelings if he says it directly. The speaker says what he believes to happen in the future, but there was no proof about his claiming. So, the user of this proverb flouted the quality maxim. Nickolas didn’t illustrate which news and why they travel fast. The speaker didn’t intend to mislead or deceive the hearer to be attention to the situation. So, he flouted the quantity maxim.

14. It seems improbable because it is improbable, his friend returned. If you would furnish him with an additional inducement to forgive you, let there be an irreconcilable breach, a most deadly quarrel, between you and me---let there be a pretence of such a thing, I mean, of course---and he’ll do fast enough. As to Nell, constant dropping will wear away a stone; you know you may trust to me as far as she is concerned. (The Old Curiosity Shop, 81)

Fred, Nell's brother, says this quotation to Dick. Fred gives his opinion about Nell. He points out how richness and beauty are important and they are available at his sister except her age, only fourteen, yet he will convince her to accept to marry Dick though she deserves fitter than Dick. Though they are not rich, Fred tries to convince Dick to marry his sister through this proverb.

Fred the user of this proverb presents an assumption without adequate evidence. So, the speaker flouted the quality maxim. In the same time the speaker flouted the relation maxim, the topic of the proverb is so different comparing to the context which the proverb located. However, referring to the independent of the proverb there is no link structurally or semantically with the surrounding sentences. The relevance of the context here has been broken.

15. Such was Miss Brass in person. In mind, she was of a strong and vigorous turn, having from her earliest youth devoted herself with uncommon ardour to the study of law, not wasting her speculations upon its eagle flights, which are rare, but tracing it attentively through all the slippery and eel-like crawlings in which it commonly pursues its way. …It is difficult to understand how, possessed of these combined attractions, she should remain Miss Brass, but whether she had steeled her heart against mankind, or whether those who might have wooed and won her, were deterred by fears that, being learned in the law, she might have too near her fingers ends those particular statutes which regulate what are familiarly termed actions for breach, certain it is that she was still in a state of celibacy, and still in daily occupation of her old stool opposite to that of her brother Sampson. And equally certain it is, by the way, that between these two stools a great many people had come to the ground. (The Old Curiosity Shop, 339-340)

Charles Dickens says this quotation to us, the readers. He gives a clear cut picture about the character of Sally Brass. Then he reaches the point when she and her brother, Sampson, sits opposite each other. The proverb does not only mean Sally and Sampson but also it refers to two great events with different objects in the Victorian period, the Industrial Revolution and Marxism. "A great many people" (355) refers to the ordinary people who are victimized by those two events. The user of this proverb flouted the quality maxim, it cannot for the people fall to the ground when they confuse between two things, like what happened to Miss Brass. The plural noun stools and verb phrase had come probable more than one meaning; in this case they cause ambiguity in interpretation the utterance, so the speaker also flouted the manner maxim.

16. Mr.Chester…., when he was disturbed by a noise at the outer door, occasioned as it seemed by the endeavours of his servant to obstruct the entrance of some unwelcome visitor.

A late hour for an importunate creditor, he said, raising his eyebrows with as indolent an expression of wonder as if the noise were in the street and one with which he had not the smallest possible concern. Much after their accustomed time. The usual pretence I suppose. No doubt a heavy payment to make up tomorrow. Poor fellow, he loses time, and time is money as the good proverb says-I never found it out though .well. What now? You know Iam not at home. (Barnaby Rudge, 253)

Mr. Chester says this quotation to himself. He satirizes one of his creditors who is late in paying his debts. He uses the proverb to comment on the significance of time. Everything in life can be compensated except time. This is the second time Dickens refers to this proverb which shows how much he is influenced by his father's debts that led him to prison and poverty.

According to the structure of proverb the lexical expression time is not compatible with the lexical expression money. Time is a conscious word whereas money refers to the tangible thing. According to the context the speaker declarative sentence is false. No one can accept that time is a true of money. So, he flouted the quality maxim,

17. Many of this class had deserted their usual occupations on the Saturday morning, some had been seen by their employers active in the tumult, others knew they must be suspected, and that they would be discharged if they returned, others had been desperate from the beginning, and comforted themselves with the homely proverb, that, being hanged at all, they might as well be hanged for a sheep as a lamb. (Barnaby Rudge, 566-567)

Charles Dickens says this quotation. Dickens, as a revolutionist writer by nature, appears clearly through this quotation and in particular through this proverb. He urges people for making riots against the government and its unjust laws which are made by the rich for the rich, i.e. for the benefit of the middle and upper classes. The proverb reflects Dickens' view about life. He shows that to live without dignity and freedom is spiritual death (death in life) and in this case, it is like those who sacrifice their lives for life like humane. He wants all those who are trodden to take active roles in the mobs since the result is the same, either physical or spiritual death. So, in both cases, there is no need to fear death.

The speaker claims that the hanging is happen whether for someone stole sheep or lamb. His claim emerged from the situation in that time Victorian era but in the context the user should present the evidence to prove the right of what he has claimed. So, the cooperative principle shows that the speaker should not lack that evidence to support what he wants to say; as a result the speaker flouted the quality maxim.

18. The boy will be idle there, said Miss Murdstone, looking into a pickle-jar and idleness is the root of all evil. But, to be sure, he would be idle here-or anywhere, in my opinion. (David Copperfield, 102)

Jane Murdstone, Mr. Murdstone spinster sister, says this quotation to Clara Peggotty, the servant of Copperfield's family. Jane is as cruel as her brother. Indirectly, she tells Clara that her brother is troublesome because he is idle. But she says what Dickens wants to comment on idleness, the proverb idleness is the root of all evil. Through this proverb, he tells the government in indirect way that this is the reason behind the mobs and whatever it does it can't and won't shut the mouths unless it finds solutions to idleness .The evil is a reflection of the acts of human beings; it is a result of different misbehaviors.

To say that the idleness is the root of all evil is hard to believe. It is impossible to public the idleness for all bad deeds. So, the user flouted the quality maxim. It is also flouted the manner maxim. The sentence root of all evil is an obscure expression, with it the interpretation of the context seemingly cause ambiguity.

19. I say, returned Mr.Micawber, quite forgetting himself, and smiling again, the miserable wretch you behold. My advice is, never do tomorrow what you can do today. Procrastination is the thief of time. (David Copperfield, 129)

The young boy David Copperfield was invited to dinner by Mr. and Mrs. Micawber, the family whom David has been sent to work in their factory in London .Mr. Micawber illustrated to David his experiences in the life and introduced him the advice. Micawber, in this saying flouted the quality maxim since the lexical expression procrastination is an adjective it is impossible to be a thief. On the other hand, the lexical expression time is a conscious word it can’t be stolen. The user function the proverb as a metaphor, he wants to advise the hearer to the importance of time and to use it in the right way.

20. But when I had made these three visits, my guardian said to me, on my return at night, "Now, little woman, little woman, this will never do. Constant dropping will wear away a stone, and constant coaching will wear out a dame Durden. We will go to London for a while and take possession of our old lodgings."(Bleak House, 438)

John Jarndyce, Esther's guardian, says this quotation to Esther. Being an orphan, Esther is certainly sensitive by nature to everything. Jarndyce's fears of her feelings oblige him to use the proverb Constant dropping will wear away a stone as a safe harbour to explain how necessary their moving to London. Dickens intends to say that sometimes we have to oblige ourselves to do things against our will to gain other things instead; this is life.

The speaker saying is not supported with evidence to proof that the stones wear away by constant dropping; so the guardian flouted the quality maxim he failed to fulfill the genuine of his claiming. To meet the topic of conversation, the relevance is necessary to draw a unity of the whole sides of context. This no achieved in the quotation. Both, proverb as independent utterance and the rest of the text have the own idea. And because of this the speaker flouted the relation maxim.

21. WERE BELLA WILFER’S bright and ready little wits at fault, or was the Golden dustman passing through the furnace of proof and coming out dross? Ill news travels fast. We shall know full soon. (Our Mutual Friend, 25)

Charles Dickens says this quotation. Bella Wilfer, who is supposed to get married to the heir John Harmon before his supposed death, Mr. and Mrs. Boffins who are now in charge of Harmon's fortune, Nicodemus "Golden Dustman" and John Rokesmith, John Harmon in disguise who works as a secretary for the Boffins, all sit at a table discussing Rokesmith's wages and other bad news. Dickens refers to the proverb "Ill news travels fast" to show that this is the nature of people to circulate bad news quickly and delay good news as it happens through their meeting. The speaker’s claim loses the evidence, his saying "We shall know full soon" is not enough it is also needs to another proof to be genuine. Spread the bad news is not population matter. The user here flouted the quality maxim.

22. with all my heart, Mary Anne.

Again Mary Anne’s telegraphic arm worked.

What more, Mary Anne?

They must find it rather dull and dark, Miss Peecher, for the parlour blind’s down, and neither of them pulls it up.

There is no accounting, said good Miss Peecher with a little sad sight which she repressed by laying her hand on her near methodical boddice, ‘there is no accounting for tastes, Mary Anne. (Our Mutual Friend, 750)

Miss Peech, the school teacher, says this quotation to Mary Anne. Peech is a nice character who is surprised by other's lifestyle because she believes in the proverb "there is no accounting for tastes". Dickens also believes in this proverb and wants every one to believe it and to respect others' manners. Her believing is enough for him to claim that there is nothing suitable for taste. So, she didn’t give what to be evidence to be the conversation clear for listener. He required more than he believed in the context; in this case he flouted the quality maxim.

23. She is moving away, with another Bless ye, and thank’ee, deary! when he adds: You were to tell me something, you may as well do so.

So I was, so I was. Well, then. Whisper. You be thankful that your name ain’t Ned.

He looks at her quite steadily, as he asks: Why?

Because it’s a bad name to have just now.

How a bad name?

A threatened name. A dangerous name.

The proverb says that threatened men live long, he tells her, lightly. (The Mystery of Edwin Drood, 135)

Edwin Brood says this quotation to an old woman. She needs money and he gives her. When she knows that his name is Edwin, she is relieved to Edwin and not "Ned" because "Ned" is " A threatened name. A dangerous name." Edwin comments on that by this proverb, indicating that those who are fearless and who people are afraid of will endure life and so will live longer than the poor and kind hearted people. Dickens holds on this idea because he sees that powerful strong men live longer than the rest. In real life or in the context situations there is no evidence that threatened men will live more than others. In this case Edwin flouted the quality maxim. In order the conversation be informative all utterances in the context should subject to ratification.

24. I gather from your silence on the subject that my late guardian is adverse, Mr. Crisparkle?

The Minor canon answered: Your late guardian is a—a most unreasonable person, and it signifies nothing to any reasonable person whether he is adverse, perverse, or the reverse.

Well for me that I have enough with economy to live upon, sighed Neville, half wearily and half cheerily, while I wait to be learned, and wait to be righted! Else I might have proved the proverb, that while the grass grows, the steed starves! (The Mystery of Edwin Drood, 164)

Neville Landless says this quotation to Mr. Crisparkle. Unfortunately, Neville knows that his late guardian, Honey thunder, is "eadverse". This has negative impacts on Neville. Mr. Crisparkle wants Neville to be strong and to study and learn even if Neville has money. Neville does not find a sentence better than the proverb to express metaphorically his bitter feelings of despair. For Dickens, this proverb can be applied to the rich, the employers. The more they get money, the less they give the employees whose thanks must go to them for their wealth and prosperity.

Neville flouted the quality maxim, the two lexical expressions, which constitute the proverb, refers to the condition sentence. Logically, it is not acceptable that when grass growing will cause starving the steed. In the same time the speaker flouted the relation maxim. Formally there is no cohesive in context. Mr. Crisparkle talk about the study and learning whereas Neville talks in a different topic, i.e. the animal and grass. So, the two opposite topics make them opposite in sense lacking the context it’s coherent.

3.1.2.1.3 Flouting the maxim of relation

25. Of this chamber, Nicholas became the tenant, and having hired a few common articles of furniture from a neighboring broker, and paid the first week’s hire in advance, out of a small fund raised by the conversation of some spare clothes into ready money, he sat himself down to ruminate upon his prospects, which, like the prospects outside his window, were sufficiently confined and dingy. As they by no means improved on better acquaintance, and as familiarity breeds contempt, he resolved to banish them from his thoughts by dint of hard walking. (Nicholas Nickleby, 275-276)

Charles Dickens, the novelist, says this quotation to us, the readers. Through a long description about Nickleby's unhappy state, Dickens makes it clearer and clearer when he uses this proverb, "familiarity breeds contempt". The proverb is preceded by "as". As it is known "as" is used for comparison. So, Dickens makes a comparison between Nickleby's miserable state and a thousand of Victorians who live under the same conditions. The novelist flouted the relation maxim. There is no connected with the context before and after it. The proverb talks about the familiarity between people whereas the context refers to the prospects that Nicholas ruminate.

26. I am coming, cried the old man. Sit thee down, Nell, sit thee down and look on. Be of good heart, it’s all for thee---all---every penny. I don’t tell them, no, no, or else they wouldn’t play, dreading the chance that such a cause must give me. Look at them .See what they are and what thou art. Who doubts that we must win! The gentleman has thought better of it, and isn’t coming, said Isaac, making as thought he would rise from the table. I’m sorry the gentleman’s daunted---nothing venture, nothing have---but the gentleman knows best. (The Old Curiosity Shop, 308)

Isaac says this quotation to the old man, Nell's grandfather. As a gambler, he does not pay attention to risks because his job requires being fearless. Here, he advises the old man to take risks if he wants to achieve something in life. Through this proverb "nothing venture, nothing, have" Dickens intends to urge the poor and all those who are hopeless to take risks to change their life; without taking the risks of revolting or at least refusing the miserable conditions, they will remain as they are.

According to the context of situation, the proverb is incompatible with what the old man wants to do. His ability to play and win as Issac claimed, "the gentleman knows best", is different from what Isaac wants to convey by this proverb. As a result, Isaac flouted the relation maxim.

27. Why then, Lord love you, said the hangman, in his hoarsest chuckle, as he pointed with his pipe to Hugh, there he sits. That’s the man. My stars and halters, Muster Gashford, he added in a whisper, as he drew his stool close to him and jogged him with his elbow, what a interesting blade he is! He wants as much holding in a thorough-bred bulldog. If it hadn’t been for me to-day, he’d have had that ‘ere Roman, and made a riot of it, in another minute’.

And why not? cried Hugh in a surly voice, as he overhead this last remark. Where’s the good of putting things off? Strike while the iron’ hot, that’s what I say (Barnaby Rudge, 477)

Hugh says this quotation to the hangman. A group of gentlemen gathered "in one of the meanest houses, which was but a room. (475)" They discuss several matters. Hugh doesn't agree with the hangman when the latter says "made a riot of it in another minute (477)." Hugh sees that there is no need to delay the works of today till tomorrow if one is capable of doing at the same time or the same day. To convince the others of his point of view, Hugh says this proverb.

Actually, Dickens wants to motivate his people who have the desire to make revolute against the government not to hesitate or delay since they have already decided and planned. The proverb, here, take the role of motivation. Hugh makes it clear that "Strike while the iron’ hot" is his motto in life. From another angle, Dickens wants it to be the motto of everyone. According to the context, the speaker of the proverb flouted the relation maxim. The topic of this proverb is so different from the previous context; there is no cohesion in meaning between the proverb and other surrounding parts. The lexical expression "iron" is a stranger to the context. There are two different topic in the context both of them are unrelated.

28. Very good, remarked the gentleman. That is my interest and business here. With that he made another dive for his shirt-collar and brought up a string.5r

Now, this is very distressing, my friend, said Mr. Pecksniff, shaking his head and smiling composedly. It is very distressing to me, to be compelled to say that you are not the person you claim to be. I know Mr. Slyme, my friend: this will not do: honesty is the best policy, you had better not, you had indeed. (Martin Chuzzlewit, 74)

Mr. Pecksniff says this quotation to Montague Tigg. Tigg asks Mr. Pecksniff to have business with his friend, Chevy Slyme. Pecksniff knows that Slyme's financial state is getting worse and worse. So, he is satisfied in using the proverb "honesty is the best policy" to tell Tigg his refusal. This is the third time in which Dickens uses this proverb. In the three novels, this proverb is said by characters that are greedy and far away from honesty; however, they speak of it.

Dickens wants to give a plain advice not to be deceived by appearance. According to the context there is no link in topic between the proverb and what the context talk about. The context situations are talking about the business whereas the proverb calls for the policy of honest. So, the context seems not to be coherent. Therefore, the proverb flouted the relation maxim. The lexical expression "policy" has different meaning; so, it interprets in different function. In this case the speaker flouted the manner maxim due breaking this maxim cause ambiguity to understand the explicit interpretation of the quotation.

29. Do it! repeated the chairman. B’s hard-up, my good fellow, and will do anything. Don’t you see? It’s my idea.

It does you honour. I’m blest if it don’t, said Jonas.

I think it does, replied the chairman, and I’m proud to hear you say so.B pays the highest lawful interest---

That an’t much, interrupted Jonas.

Right! quite right! retorted Tigg. And hard it is upon the part of the law that it should be so confoundedly down upon us unfortunate victims, when it takes such amazing good interest for itself from all its clients. But charity begins at home, and justice begins next door. (Martin Chuzzlewit, 624)

Tigg says this quotation to Jonas and the chairman. By this quotation and in particular the proverb "charity begins at home" Tigg puts his hands on the wound of the poor. Capitalists are careful for collecting money for themselves and they spend it for themselves or for the rich like them while the workers who work day and night in their factories to increase their incomes and who really have the right that these mounts to be spend on them and for them, they get nothing except little payments. So, Dickens, at the tongue of Tigg, cries that the Capitalists should prefer the members of their family, metaphorically speaking, to the strangers.

There is a contrast between the proverb and previous context. There is no referring to lexical expression "charity" within previous context. The coordinator "and" link the proverb with followed sentence, there is a contrast in meaning .The lexical expression "justice" is not compatible with the meaning of the proverb. Theory of the cooperative principle points out that the discourse will be relevant if the topic of conversation is consistent with all sides; however, the speaker here flouted the relation maxim.

30.Tom,Tom!The man in all this world most proud of his distrust of other men, and having most to show in gold and silver as the gains belonging to his creed, the meekest favourer of that wise doctrine, Every man for himself, and God for us all……( Martin Chuzzlewit,859)

John Westlock says this quotation to Tom Pinch. He advises Tom to think only of his own interests and not to interfere in others' affairs by saying this proverb. He points out how God is responsible for all the creatures and the humans. Before giving Tom this advice, Westlock asks Tom many questions about Mercy Pecksniff. Dickens wants to draw the reader's attention to two important points, first, through this proverb which advises to leave the creatures to their Creator, and second, through the character of Westlock; not all those who say wisdoms are really wise.

Grammatically, there is no connecting between the proverb and other parts of the text. Semantically, the meaning of the proverb is far away from the meaning of the context. So the speaker flouted the relation maxim. What the user says in the proverb is different from the surrounded context. The context here loses its relevance with the proverb.

31. Mind! Exclaimed the old man. Not a hair of her head! Not a hair of her head ill-used! I won’t bear it. I---I---have borne it too long, Jones. I am silent, but I---I---I can speak. I---I--- can speak---,he stammered, as he crept back to his chair, and turned a threatening, though a feeble, look upon him.

You can speak, can you! Though Jonas. So, so, we’ll stop your speaking. It,s well I knew of this in good time. Prevention is better than cure… (Martin Chuzzlewit, 1077)

Jonas says this quotation to himself. Chuffey is worried about his wife who left the house from the early afternoon and has not returned yet. Though she told her husband that she would go to her friend, Mrs. Todgers, Chuffey suspects that Jonas is the reason. Hence, Chuffey threatens Jonas if he does wrong with her, he will let Jonas regret deeply. Jonas is sure that he will not let himself to reach to that point without making everything under his control in advance. He is encouraged by the proverb "Prevention is better than cure." It is easier to prevent Chuffey from taking any rush action than to mend the ruins that he will causes.

Dickens, through this proverb, wants every one to think in the same manner. The user tells truth in the declarative sentence. The proverb is an independent in its meaning, semantically no linked between the proverb expressions and the expressions found in the context. It is also no structural linking have been found with the text .In this case, the idea of the proverb is differentiate from the whole idea of the context. So, the speaker here flouted the relation maxim. Furthermore, though the speaker told the truth, but he didn’t explain what he claims about prevention according to context situation. As a result, the speaker flouted the quantity maxim.

32. Well, Mr.Dombey, he’s had a fall from his horse, said Rob, unwillingly, and my master has to be up there, more than usual, either with him, or Mrs. Dombey, or some of em,and so we’ve come to town.

Are they good friends, lovely? asked the old woman.

Who? retorted Rob.

He and she?

What, Mr. and Mrs. Dombey? said Rob. How should I know!

Not them---Master and Mrs. Dombey, chick, replied the old woman, coaxingly.

I don’t know, said Rob, looking round him again.I suppose so.

How curious you are, Misses Brown! Least said, soonest mended. (Dombey and Son, 666)

Rob, Robin Toodle, says this quotation to Mrs. Brown, the old woman. She always asks Rob many questions about Mr. Dombey and his wife. Once, Rob is getting sick of her questions and he can't say it directly. So, he translates it in the form of the proverb. He finds in the proverb his refuge to convey indirectly his feeling of boring and anger towards her. So, Rob in this situation flouted the relation maxim. What the user in the proverb claim is contrary to the question of the old man.

33. I’ll say anything! Cried Mr.Wickfield,with a desperate air. ‘Why should I not be in all the world’s power if I am in yours?’

Mind! I tell you! Said! said Uriah, continuing to warn me. ‘If you don’t stop his mouth, you’re not his friend! Why shouldn’t you be in all the world’s power, Mr.Wickfield? Because you have got a daughter. You and me know what we know, don’t we? Let sleeping dogs lie-who wants to rouse ‘em? I don’t. (David Copperfield, 419)

Uriah Heep says this quotation to Mr. Wickfield. Uriah loses his control and tells David to stop Mr. Wickfield. There are secrets between Uriah and Mr. Wickfield concerning the latter's daughter and Uriah threatens him that he will reveal everything before David through the proverb "Let sleeping dogs lie."

Uriah uses the proverb as a tool of warning Wickfield not to remember the bitter past in order to avoid its troubles and danger. In the context there is no referring to the dogs before and after .The imperative sentence of proverb is an independent in its meaning .There is no relevance in idea between the general topic of the quotation and the idea of the proverb itself. For this reason the speaker flouted the relation maxim.

34. I comprehended, at once, that my aunt was right, and I comprehended the full extent of her generous feeling towards my dear wife.

These are early days, Trot, she pursued, and Rome was not built in a day, nor in a year. You have chosen freely for yourself, a cloud passed over her face for a moment, I thought, and you have chosen a very pretty and a very affectionate creature. (David Copperfield, 464)

Betsey Trotwood says this quotation to David. Betsey starts her story about her past with this proverb. First, to tell David that the story is long and takes time, second, to pave the way before David that she also suffered in her life and third, this is the point, she wants to encourage him to be patient in life and not to give up quickly even if he fails once or twice or even more. All over the world, great deeds can't be done in a minute and as quick as the desires. She hopefully tries to reduce his disappointment.

Dickens seizes this opportunity as well to instruct his readers not to give up easily, quickly or from only one or two attempts. He motivates the mobs by telling them not expect they will achieve their objects of freedom and dignity overnight. It takes a long period of struggle; so patience is required in all the time. The idea of the proverb is far away from what interlocutors talk about. The meaning of the proverb lonely is tells the truth but by comparing it with context it loses its relevance being an appropriate sentence. So, Trotwood here flouted the relation maxim.

35. ….but we don’t, not the least. We can’t cook anything whatever. A needle and thread we don’t know how to use. We admire the people who possess the practical wisdom we want, but we don’t quarrel with them. Then why should they quarrel with us? Live and let live, we say to them. Live upon your practical wisdom, and let us live upon you! (Bleak House, 734-735)

Mr. Harold Skimpole says this quotation to his three daughters, Arethusa, Laura and Kitty. Although he is not a good character and has a strange lifestyle, through this proverb he proves that he understands life well, unlike what he usually claims as a child, "In this family we are all children, and I'm the youngest" (734). On his behalf, Dickens criticizes a general trait that seems the majority of people have which is the interference in others' manners of living. Through this proverb, Dickens makes it clear that every one is free to live in the way he/she likes and it is necessary to respect that. When the user said "live and let live" he flouted the relation maxim. His answer to the question is differentiating .The phrase "let live" is opposites with preceded lexical expression "quarrel." The speaker want to stimulate the hearer/reader to the wisdom implied beyond the form of the proverb that is to let everyone live for himself and for others.

36."Your ladyship will remember when I muention it that the last time I was here I run against a party very eminent in our profession and whose loss we all deplore. That party certainly did from that time apply himself to cutting in against me in a way that I will call sharp practice, and did make it, at every turn and point, extremely difficult for me to be sure that I hadn’t inadvertently led up to something contrary to Miss. Summerson’s wishes. Self-praise is no recommendation, but I may say for myself that I am not so bad a man of business neither."(Bleak House, 932)

Mr. Guppy says this quotation to Lady Dedlock, Esther's unknown mother. Mr. Guppy does his best to convince Lady Dedlock that he is a trustworthy man, so he seeks the help of this proverb. This by self is enough to convince Lady Dedlock. The proverb formulated as a declarative sentence; structurally an independent. I mean there is no grammatically link to other parts of the context. There is a contrast in meaning between proverb as it holding the self denial wisdom and what he has claimed for him self. As a result, Mr. Guppy flouted the relation maxim.

37. It was one of the most exasperating attributes of Bounderby, that he not only sang his own praises but stimulated other men to sing them. There was a moral infection of clap-trap in him. Strangers, modest enough elsewhere, started up at dinners in Coketown, and boasted, in quite a rampant way, of Bounderby. They made him out to be the royal arms, the Union-jack, Magna Charta, John Bull, Habeas Corpus, the Bill of Rights, an Englishman’s house is his castle, Church and state, and God save the Queen, all put together.(Hart Times,25)

Charles Dickens says this quotation. He describes one of Bounderby's possessions. Bounderby is a Capitalist rich who despises the poor workers who work in his factories. So, when Dickens says this proverb, it is a direct attack that all Capitalist represented by the character of Bounderby who have privacy and security in their houses while hundred of workers are homeless. The declarative independent sentence of the proverb loses the context the relevance, i.e. the context is incoherent grammatically and semantically. Formally, the proverb refers to unknown person. The speaker of this proverb here flouted the relation maxim.

38. I don’t see, returned Mr. Flintwinch, scraping his horny cheek that it need signify much to you. But I’ll tell you what I do see, Arthur, glancing up at the windows, I see the light of fire and candle in your mother’s room!

And what has that to do with it?

Why, sir, I read by it, said Mr. Flintwinch, screwing himself at him, that if it’s advisable (as the proverb says it is) to let sleeping dogs lie, it’s just as advisable, perhaps, to let missing dogs lie. Let ‘em be. They generally turn up soon enough. (Little Dorrit, 967)

Mr. Flintwinch, initially Mrs. Clennam's servant and later a partner in Clennam & Co., says this quotation to David. Mr. Flintwinch is a bad character who knows Mrs. Clennam's secrets and blackmails her. Consequently, when he says the proverb "let sleeping dogs lie" he wants to tell David that he knows everything but he intentionally does not want to speak not out of fear or shame. So, it is better for David not to disturb him because if Mr. Flintwinch speaks, the results will be disasters. Dickens, in this proverb, really means that Mr. Flintwinch is a dog that must remain asleep. And there are a lot of dogs, like Mr. Flintwinch, that must be kept asleep as well.

The user blatantly wants to mislead David to be careful against Mr. Flintwinch. Formally the noun "dogs" is stranger to the context; there is no idea about animals in the context. So, the simile feature of this proverb makes it obscure to the context. As no relevance with context, the proverb flouted the relation maxim.

39. It was no laughing matter with Estella now, nor was she summoning these remembrances from any shallow place. I would not have been the cause of that look of hers for all my expectations in a heap.

Two things I can tell you, said Estella. First, notwithstanding the proverb that constant dropping will wear away a stone, you may set your mind at rest that these people never will –never would, in hundred years---impair your ground with Miss Havisham, in any particular, great or small. (Great Expectations, 355)

Estella says this quotation to Pip. Estella is Havisham's revengeful weapon to destroy men. She tells Pip not even to think of her because it is useless and the proverb "constant dropping will wear away a stone" can't be implied to her. The proverb, in this case plays the role of evidence. The figurative meaning of proverb as a proof to what he wants to convey is different from the meaning of the context. No ties found related the stones to the previous context. An Independent of the proverb makes the user flouts the relation maxim. He doesn’t achieve the relevance with the context situation.

40. Mrs. Lammle’s innocent appeal was merely thrown into the air, to mingle with the steam of the urn. Glancing towards Mr. and Mrs. Boffin, she very slightly raised her eyebrows, as though inquiring of her husband: Do I notice anything wrong here?

Mr. Lammle who had found his chest effective on a variety of occasions, manoeuvred his capacious shirt front into the largest demonstration possible, and then smiling retorted on his wife, thus: Sophronia, darling, Mr. and Mrs. Boffin will remind you of the old adage, that self-praise is no recommendation. (Our Mutual Friend, 681)

Alfred Lammle says this quotation to his wife, Sophronia. They are supposed to be close friends to Mr. and Mrs. Boffins. In reality, they are after their wealth. This is their object behind their friendship to the Boffins. Therefore, Alfred Lammle reminds his wife how to behave through this proverb .So; the proverb is used by Alfred Lammle for the purpose of remembering, in other words, a vehicle to achieve an end. When Mr. Lammle answered his wife’s question through this proverb he flouted the relation maxim. She inquired whether any wrong things found. His answer didn’t mach the question of his wife. So, his saying lost the context it’s coherent, by other words there is no relevance in idea between the proverb and the idea of the context.