The History About Dreams English Literature Essay
When i get up in the morning I wonder, think, try to figure out why, what it meant, is it possible, will it happen, or was it simply a ……………DREAM.
People have a tendency to ask the same question to others and figure out what the dream meant. Not only dreams, people in general have a tendency to analyze, judge other people by their behaviour based on their response to particular things, situations and conversations around them. We label them as introvert and extrovert. Carl was instrumental in advancing the idea of introvert and extrovert personalities. This personality typology has become very popular today. Introverts are people who prefer their internal world of thoughts, feelings, fantasies and dreams while, extroverts are the ones who prefer the external world of things, people and activities.
But what are these dreams? Can they really be analyzed? Do the terms introvert and extrovert mean exactly as per their dictionary meaning? Who thought of these terms in the first place and why?
To get a reply to all these questions, we need to go back in time and learn about a Swiss psychiatrist who coined the terms Introvert and Extrovert. The one, who changed how in the field of psychoanalysis one thought about the human personality or psyche. But is this what a psychiatrist does? Unlike other professions where we work with known elements and established practices, psychiatry deals with the unknown mind. In addition, no two minds work in the same manner. Hence, in psychotherapy, the generic methodologies employed in psychiatry are usually tweaked to suit the unique demand of a given case from time to time.
By definition, psychologists attempt to understand the role of the functioning of the mind with respect to individual and social behavior. Therefore, they also explore the physiological and neurobiological processes that underlie certain cognitive functions and behaviors.
This Swiss psychiatrist also used the word persona to explain the mask each of us wears in the world to hide our deep self, and the word individuation as the process of becoming fully conscious, that means incorporating our unconscious vitalities into our conscious lives.
His theories helped in proving the existence and influence of the human unconscious on their personality and one self. The lie detector and the Meyers-Briggs Type Indicator® (a widely-used personality test) are based on his ideas.
It is due to this psychiatrist work on personality types and dream interpretation, that millions have been able to understand their inner self. Consequently, it becomes paramount to discover the journey of the thinker Jung who thought at least hundred years ahead of his times.
He helped people know themselves, and now it’s time for "people" to know ….…….CARL JUNG.
The paternal backdrop
The Jung family originally came from Mainz. Carl Jung’s paternal history starts with his great grandfather Franz Ignaz Jung (1759-1831), a physician, a Mainz Catholic and an Introvert. He had a failed marriage with Sophie Ziegler, and a son named Carl Gustav in 1974.
Sophie Jung has been said to have some mental illness, maybe the reason why Franz was unhappy with his marriage to her, besides suspecting her of having an affair and an illegitimate son by a guy named Goethe. Not much is known about who exactly Goethe was except that he was associated with the Mannheim theatre in Germany. Franz also contemplated that Sophie had an over-intense relationship with her son Carl Gustav. How gross this is, you might wonder. I wonder too!
Carl Gustav in the mean time grew up in an unhealthy environment and in his student years converted to Protestantism. He studied medicine in Heidelberg University, although it is said that he loved writing poems. He later in 1820 took up Swiss citizenship and thereafter made his career in Switzerland. Carl Gustav became a professor of medicine at Basel University in 1822. Carl was interested in psychiatry, and this interest led him to found an institute for psychologically disturbed and retarded children. He spent most of his free time in this institute till his death in 1864.
On the personal front like the other Jung’s , Carl Gustav too had a disturbed married life. His first wife died after bearing him three children. They have never been spoken off. Carl Gustav soon decided to marry Sophie, the daughter of Basil’s mayor. His proposal was turned down by the mayor and this rejection resulted in a mental trauma for Carl Gustav. He decided to marry the first attractive woman he would meet, thus landing up proposing a waitress in a tavern he had stormed into after the rejection. An exploit that won him dishonor in the university. The waitress too died after bearing him two children. [Oh no... Not again.] Now that the waitress is dead Carl Gustav decided to marry Sophie again. This time as Sophie was still unmarried, the mayor agreed to his proposal. Is that all that is required to get a daughter married to a man??? Maybe at that time, who knows?
Sophie bore eight children. The youngest son born through this marriage was Paul Jung, father of yet to be born Carl Jung. Paul remembers his father as a "domestic tyrant", maybe the reason he had so many children.
That’s how much we know about his paternal side; let’s look at the maternal side.
The maternal backdrop
Carl Jung’s maternal grandfather Samuel Preiswerk (1799-1871) was obsessed with Jewish history and culture. He was a pastor and a Zionist avant la letter (a position in Israeli political discourse). He believed that Hebrew was the language spoken in Heaven, hence gave Jewish names to his children. Samuel achieved such great height in the Hebrew studies that he was appointed to a lectureship in the same subject. Unlike today during those times and earlier, many great people reached heights only due to their knowledge and no formal degree in their particular field. Today, degree matters.
Coming back to Samuel, he was called to Basel as pastor of St Leonhard's church. It’s here that he married twice. His first wife Magdalene died after bearing one child. His second wife Augusta Faber, daughter of a Wurttemberg clergyman bore him no less than thirteen children. Yes, thirteennnnnnnnnnnnnnn ONLY. What is interesting here is that Samuel believed in spirits and ghosts, he was an occultist and spiritualist. Samuel had placed a chair in his study, and would often be found sitting on the chair opposite to it and talking to someone. He basically would talk to the ghost of his first wife, who he thought visited him weekly and sat on empty chair he had placed for her. This behaviour and thoughts were disliked by his second wife, and as we correctly think, they had fights over it. Augusta did not accept this behaviour lightly, especially as Samuel insisted her to be standing right behind him during his weekly conversation with his first wife. Augusta was herself mystic and possessed of the second sight, a conflict of the psyches was fought out in the Preiswerk household now.
Paul and Emilie – Carl Jung junior’s parents
Paul and Emilie were the youngest children in their respective families of thirteen siblings. A number associated with evil and superstition.
Paul was a brilliant student of oriental languages (principally Arabic) at Gottingen University. But, he was of a depressive nature, hence in his 30’s became a pastor in the Swiss Reformed Church Evangelical in a backwater in Canton Thurgau. Quiet and down-to-earth in public, he was argumentative and had a bad-temper in private. The reason why his marriage with Emilie Preiswerk did not prosper, especially as his dreamy, scholarly nature clashed with Emilie’s mysterious personality, something we can be sure she inherited from her `psychic' Preiswerk parents.
The other side of this troublesome marriage was more intense and sexual in reason. There has been a speculation that Paul lacked virility, and Emilie was terrified of sex. Whatever the case, they still had children and a great one indeed.
Now, that we know about Carl Jung’s background, it’s time for him to be born, even after his parent’s mystical sexual problems.
The surviving child
Paul and Emilie gave birth to Carl Gustav Jung junior on 26th July, 1875, at Kesswil on the southern edge of Lake Constance. Carl was their first surviving child, of the four who survived only for a few months. The demise of her first three children had left Emilie depressed and lost. Hence even after Carl’s survival she suffered clinical depression and frequently required medical care.
Paul now had to take on the responsibility of nurturing Carl all alone. Emilie would get depression attacks and would behave unpredictably; this had made life more difficult for Paul. Hence he would quarantine her in their bedroom or send her away to a clinic for treatment regularly. When Carl was was six months old paul moved to a new vicarage at Laufen castle, above the Rhine Falls. Hence Jung has no memory of Lake Constance but he always somehow had a liking for lakes wanted to live near one.
In 1878 Emilie was sent to a mental hospital. 3 year old Carl, who had developed eczema, was sent to live with his aunt. Here on Carl always felt doubtful when the word `love' was spoken and associated woman with untrustworthiness. He has no memories of his mother loving him or taking care of him, but father on the other hand meant dependability and helplessness.
Paul on the other hand after living three years in Laufen requested a transfer and in 1879 was called to a new parish at Klein-Huningen, now a suburb of Basel but then a small village on the Rhine inhabited by fishermen and peasants. The relocation brought Emilie in close contact with her family and as a result lifted her up from her dependency and melancholy.
Paul was a Swiss Pastor, a considerably higher rank then the peasants. A rank that affected Carl’s school life. Carl was treated differently; he was isolated by the rest. During those times a Pastor or a member of a pastor’s family was regarded as "a creature apart", and they stood outside the main stream life of the peasants. If this wasn’t enough, Carl’s parents had now started quarreling more often, leaving Carl all hurt and alone. When parents fight in front of a child, it affects their mentality; the screaming, words used, temper, all this is beyond a point of understanding from a child’s perspective. He only hears noises and understands anger, and slowly the same drifts him away from people, searching for peace and silence. The same happened with Carl, he would now be happy being lonely, would spend time playing on his own with his toys soldier’s and birds. He would sometimes even sketch naval battles.
He understood that his mother’s nature baffled him and developed in him a prejudice towards women in general as "innately unreliable." In his later years, he would cite that his negative notion of women was "the handicap I started out with." Although Jung was close to both parents he had reservations towards his father's academic approach to faith.
Carl described himself as an introverted and solitary child, saying that he was most happy when he was left alone to his thoughts, which is the hallmark of a typical thinker.
Just before Carl went to school he had started getting some dreams, dreams that were a significant part of his life. Carl remembers being 3 or 4 years of age when these dreams occurred. In his dream Carl saw himself in a meadow near Laufen castle, and here he discovered a passageway. He crawled down the passageway and in a subterranean chamber found a kind of altar or king’s throne on which stood a twelve or thirteen feet high and two feet thick object. The object was made of skin and naked flesh, with a rounded head or a so called single eye on the very top of the head. Later he identified the object as a sacrament phallus. "That is the man eater!" he heard his mother calling from outside, and he woke up frightened.
The dream was nothing else, but a result of Carl’s experience of his parents disastrous sexual relationship. In clinical explanation it is said that children are insecure if they sense that their parents are not united in a loving way. But there is vagueness and darkness in this dream, and Jung himself stated that he could not make out whether his mother's cry means `that is the maneater' (meaning the phallus, which implied that it, not the Lord Jesus or the Jesuit, was the devourer of children) or `That is the maneater' -- implying that the phallus was simply another in the species of maneaters containing Jesus and the Jesuit or that all three were identical.
The penis theory suggests Carl’s fear of the organ, his phallic excitement of his penis inside his mother’s body, castration fear and sexual anxiety. His parents were sleeping in different rooms, and he shared his room with his father. His dream and anxiety (a feeling of worry, nervousness, or unease, typically about an imminent event or something with an uncertain outcome) can be an outcome of him unconsciously being confronted by his father’s sexual frustration, and it cannot be ruled out that he did see his father’s erect penis.
Carl had another anxiety dream where he said that he saw telegraph wires festooned with birds, where the wires grew thicker and thicker and his fear greater and greater until the terror awoke him. Unquestionably it’s a phallic tumescence. (Tumescence usually refers to the normal engorgement with blood of the erectile tissues, marking sexual excitation and possible readiness for sexual activity)
As a result of these anxiety dreams and experience Carl later was in doubt about his own sexuality and paid less attention to sex as an important part of a human’s life.
Here Carl’s mother indirectly can be held responsible for making Carl doubt his own sexuality. In his dream when Carl encounters the phallus, his mother’s call is far from reassuring him, instead it frightens him more. This can be interpreted as a hollow created between the mother and son, due to separation during Emilie’s illness.
A number of childhood memories had made a life-long impression on him. Due to his mother’s dual personality, unaware as a child, Jung fashioned a totem on the end of his pencil box ruler. He also painted a stone into two sides. He then placed this totem and the stone in a box in the attic safely.
It should be noted that this totem symbolized his belief in dual personalities. During his childhood, he would often revisit the totem and come up with symbolic writings on tiny sheets of paper. He later confessed that these writings instilled in him the peace and security that he always yearned for.
His painting and carving of the totem was an unconscious ritual that he did not understand or question during his childhood. However, it should be noted that such practices of expression had a striking resemblance to the belief and practice in ancient cultures like the Red Indians and African tribes.
Such experiences and expressions of belief in duality of the mind later inspired him to manifest theories on psychological archetypes and the collective unconscious.
Even when Carl’s mother returned from the mental hospital in Basel, she was not close to him. Carl remembered his mother sometimes being happy, but more often subject to fits of depression. He soon perceives her dual personality, the two different people within the same person. He was petrified of her terrifying second personality. Externally she was passive, but her unconscious occasionally burst through to expose a deep character of power and resolution. The second personality emerged rarely, and each time Carl was frightened by it. There is no doubt that the dark side of his personality which he develops later is a `typical of psychosis and psychotic character,' and was aggravated by his mother.
Carl now as a child suffered from fragile health. He would spend much of his time studying at home, even though he was enrolled in a grade school. In 1881 Carl’s aunt took him to a Basel museum to see stuffed animals. Carl who was least interested and wandered off into an art section of the gallery. His aunt found him gazing at nude sculptures; getting angry she yelled "disgusting boy shut your eyes."
The atmosphere at home was still stressful. Carl was now seven and had started suffering from croup and choking fits, he did so even in his dreams. Later in his studies Carl has mentioned that this was a "psychogenic" factor as the house atmosphere had become unbearable for him.
In 1883, one night his father woke up Carl, carried him in his arms to the west-facing porch to show him the exciting sky, which was lit up due to the eruptions of the Krakatau Volcano. Carl thus felt that his father was the "motherly" one. The difference between his mother and Carl continued to increase. Tough he was close to his father, Paul was still unable to understand Carl and his behaviour.
Carl was now 12. Once while in school he was pushed by a boy, sending him hard on the ground. Carl was unconscious for a moment. When he woke up a thought came to him "now you won’t have to go to school any more". Then onwards whenever Carl was asked to go to school or do his homework he would faint. This continued for almost six months.
Then there was a day when he overheard his father worriedly speaking to a visitor. Paul expressed his concern over Carl’s fainting issue. He was concerned about Carl’s future, how he would support himself in future. Paul was worried that Carl had epilepsy. Carl was old enough to understand his father’s financial condition. Carl knew that his father did not earn enough money, and Paul’s concern about him enlightened him and made him realize that he needs to study and earn to support himself and his family. He immediately started studying Latin grammar in his father’s study. He fainted thrice but eventually over came this problem.
Jung later explained this experience of his fainting as his first encounter with neurosis. Neurosis can be defined as a relatively mild personality disorder typified by excessive anxiety or indecision. Additionally, the disorder is marked with a degree of social maladjustment with physical manifestations which in his case was fainting.
And life moves on
Time passed by, Carl was now a teen; he somehow from somewhere came across the subject Philosophy and soon started reading wildly about it. Philosophy and his childhood experience led him to study medicine. Maybe he was influenced by his grandfather too as he joined the same university his grandfather taught in, University of Basel in 1894, to study medicine.
The times Carl lived in, viewed psychiatry with contempt. Hence, initially he had no inclination to pursue psychiatry as his profession. However, after his father’s death in 1895 e came across psychiatry as a subject. This is where he discovered his excitement especially when he read about psychosis. He understood that psychosis is a personality disease that can be described as a "loss of contact with reality".
With his early years doubling up as the basis, he could immediately understand that this was the field where his interest resided. Moreover, he could immediately associate with psychiatry since it combined biological and spiritual facts that he was searching for. Carl was considered an introvert as a child was now a much livelier boy and considered arrogant by his colleagues.
In 1900 he graduated from Basel University, and in 1902 he completed his dissertation for his MD from University of Zurich. His dissertation was titled On the Psychology and Pathology of So-Called Occult Phenomena. These theses were published in 1903.
The same year Carl set up a laboratory for experimental psychopathology in Burgholzli Clinic. Towards the end of his studies he was persuaded to specialize in psychiatric medicine after reading Krafft-Ebing’s "Lehrbuch der Psychiatrie", 4th edn. (1890), and read that psychoses are "diseases of the personality." He later worked in the Burgholzli Clinic, a psychiatric hospital in Zurich.
In 1903 he married a lady named Emma Rauschendbach who became his close collaborator until her death. Together they had four daughters and a son.
Jung vs Freud – the story begins
Jung with few of his associates worked out a so called association experiment. This is a method of testing used to reveal significant groups of ideas affectively in the unconscious (the psyche). These "complexes" as Carl called them controlled a person’s emotions and anxieties. He was later confirmed about his ideas and observations when he read Sigmund Freud’s (an Austrian neurologist who became known as the founding father of psychoanalysis.) book "interpretation of dreams."
1906 saw psychoanalysis as an institution in its first stage. Carl was only 30 years, when he published Studies in Word Association in 1906. He sent a copy of this to Sigmund Freud.
This helped in building up a close friendship that lasted for six years between the two stalwarts of psychology. Their first conversation lasted over thirteen hours. And after about six months Freud sent Carl a collective of his published essays. This marked the beginning of an intense correspondence and collaboration between two legends that lasted more than six years.
Freud, who was already a famous psychologist, saw Jung as an outspoken, sort of protégé person. Freud soon became a father figure to Jung. In one of his letters, Freud referred to Carl as, "The Joshua to my Moses, fated to enter the Promised Land which I myself will not live to see." over and again he spoke of Carl as his "heir," once as "my successor and crown prince," and even as "spirit of my spirit."
Wow, six years, father son relations, sounds intense…………. but if the relation was so intense why did it broke? What caused a trauma between the two psychologists? Was it rivalry or personal or something else? Let’s find out
Sharing a dream
Carl became editor of the newly founded Yearbook for Psychoanalytical and Psychopathological Research in 1908. The following year, Carl and Freud traveled to the U.S., introducing psychoanalysis by means of their Fordham Lectures. They spent about 3 months touring America. This was the most intimate time of their friendship. They had several conversations, conversations which brought forth ideological differences between the two.
Remember Carl used to have dreams! He had one about his wife too, a dream he shared with Freud during one of their conversation about interpreting dream. Carl described his dream; in his dream he was living on the second floor of a two storey house, when he decided to explore the ground floor. He found the ground floor furnished with 15th or 16th century decorations and furniture which was too old. This unique finding led him to explore the entire house. He found a stone stairway leading downstairs to the cellar filled with artifacts, dated to ancient Roman Times. Downward even deeper, he came upon a filthy cave with scattered bones, broken pottery, and two human skulls. He then awoke.
On hearing this Freud became fascinated by the two skulls in the cave, but not as collective unconscious material. Freud insisted Carl to associate the skulls to some wish Carl had deep within his heart. What Freud pointed out was that Carl wanted someone to be dead. But who did Carl wish dead? , or was the interpretation wrong. Carl was startled at Freud’s response and not yet completely trusting his own judgment, Carl replied , "My wife and my sister-in-law"— "after all, I had to name someone whose death was worth the wishing!", he later said.
Carl later accepted this dream as evidence for different levels of the psyche. The upper floor had an inhabited atmosphere and represented consciousness, the top layer of the psyche. The ground floor was the first layer of the unconscious—old but not as alien or ancient as the Roman artifacts in the cellar, which symbolized a deeper layer of the personal unconscious. In the cave, Jung "discovered remains of a primitive culture, that is, the world of the primitive man within myself—a world which can scarcely be reached or illuminated by consciousness"
"I was newly married at the time and knew perfectly well that there was nothing within myself which pointed to such wishes"
Maybe Carl’s interpretation if his dream is more accurate, but it cannot be ruled out that Carl indeed wish for his wife’s death. He was not newly married, it was almost seven years, and had got involved in a sexual relationship with his patient named Sabina Spielrein.
Carl’s association with Sabrina as patient and doctor, but soon the relationship turned into a sexual one. Carl continued to analyze Sabrina in spite of the sexual relation and finally conducted training analyses that made it possible for her to become a psychoanalyst after she was completely cured.
Sabina was only 18yr old when she was brought in as a patient of Carl, just before his association with Freud. Carl was keen on taking on this case as it would help him discover "the mysteries of the brain and the unconscious which affected the conscious mind and altered human behavior." Carl as a treatment therapy decided to try "the talking technique," a new therapy he had read in a book by Freud. This was psychoanalysis.
Carl was primarily keen on the 'word-association experiment’: a series of random words were fired at the patient, who had to respond with the first thing that came to mind. Carl noticed whenever he mentioned Sabrin’s father, it would result in "grimaces and gestures of abhorrence" in Sabrina.
Progressively Jung discovered that Sabina’s , father would bet her on her buttocks, in a special room away from her family. Sabrina gradually during her treatment confessed to Carl that she felt sexual excitement when her father beat her. Carl also came across a fact that Sabrin’s mother had raised he in complete sexual ignorance’, which explains her confused reaction to these oddly intimate period with her father.
Carl had achieved success with Sabrina within the first year with Freud’s new technique. Sabrina was cured to an extent that she started living independently in Zurich and also started her studies in medicine.
In the meanwhile Carl’s correspondence with Freud had increased. He had discussed the case of Sabrina with Freud. He also mentioned to him that Sabrina wrote him a letter saying, "I love you too much." Later ion one of the letters to Freud Carl started that he was in contact with Sabrina as he feared a relapse. Such was not the case with Sabrina and a a year later Carl rather lewdly told Freud, "she admits that her greatest wish is to have a child by me. For that purpose I would naturally have to ‘let the bird out’ first."
Its clear form Carl and Sarina’s letter that they had an intimate relation, Carl in one of his letter to Sabrin wrote "'I realise how much more attached I am to you than I ever thought." The intense relation was carried on for five years.
The rumor reached Freud, and Carl petrified of his reputation wrote to Freud saying that ‘a women patient’ had "kicked up a vile scandal." He went on to say that he offered her friendship only to become conscious of a fact that, "she was of course systematically planning my seduction." He however admitted that, "during the whole business Gross’s notions [he was referring to Otto Gross, an analyst, morphine addict and enthusiastic advocate of free love] flitted about a bit too much in my head." Freud believed him.
Sabrin was enraged to be cast in the role of temptress, she wrote to Freud in her defense. Freud apologized for jumping to conclusions, to Carl that she was 'very bright. There is meaning in everything she says.’ Freud continued to correspond with her for years to come.
The cracks develop
In the meantime the relation between Jung and Freud began to splinter. Opinion on Sabrina’s case was one major reason. One of their arguments was on the treatment techniques. Freud would prefer his patient to lay back side on a couch so as to think that he/she is talking to himself. Whereas, Carl would sit directly opposite to the patient and be a part of the interaction.
This relationship and association began to get worse as the years went on. While Freud thought of Carl as the most innovative person and his successor, he was unhappy with Jung's difference with some of the basic doctrine of ‘Freudian theory’. Carl believed that Freud was too focused on sexuality as a rousing force and disagreed with him about the sexual undercurrents forming a basis for all of mind’s activities. . He also felt that Freud's concept of the unconscious was limited and overly negative. Carl felt that the unconscious could also be a basis of creativity.
Carl's major disagreement with Freud took branch from their differing concepts of the unconscious. Carl saw Freud's theory of the unconscious as flawed and senselessly negative. According to Carl, Freud considered the unconscious solely as a storehouse of subdued emotions and desires. Although Carl did agree with Freud's model of the unconscious, Carl calls it the personal unconscious; but he also projected the existence of far deeper form of the unconscious, which underlies the personal one. He called it the collective unconscious where the archetypes themselves resided.
Freudian psychoanalysis is based on the theory that a mind largely works on unconscious and irrational drives and instincts which need to be surfaced and dealt with at the conscious level. Any attempt to bring these drives into awareness was met with psychological resistance as a defense mechanism. Freud concluded that the events in early childhood played a key role in the behavior of a human psyche.
Carl also disagreed with Freud’s view that "all complexes come from sexual trauma, because he had experience with psychological problem that had different origins." Freud also did not agree with Carl’s views about spiritualism and parapsychology. According to Carl, the first real crisis in their friendship came in spring 1909.
Carl visited Freud in Vienna and asked his opinion on precognition and parapsychology. But Freud was too selfish and discarded this matter in a way that upset Jung. Jung speaks about a strange thing which happened at the same time. As Freud was leaving, Jung heard a very loud crack which came from the bookcase next to them, this he spoke of as an example of paranormal phenomenon, which was discarded by Freud immediately. Immediately Carl predicted that in a moment there would be another loud noise, and yes indeed there came a second loud crack from the bookcase. Freud was puzzled but this incident hoisted his mistrust towards Carl.
The next crisis in their friendship came in 1910, when Freud was trying to make his sexual theory a code of belief against occultism. According to Carl, this had nothing to do with scientific judgment, but only with Freud’s ambition and past.
Despite their difference they continued to work together until 1912. It is believed that the break in their friendship came by Jung’s publication of "Symbols of Transformation", which is full of mythological symbols.
Freud dismissed Jung’s interest in religion and myths as being ‘unscientific.’ This dismissal made Carl resentful toward his mentor. Following this Carl, for reasons not known initiated a rumor that Freud had a romantic relation with his sister-in –law, Minna Bernays, who had shifted in with Freud in his apartment. He even went ahead to say that the affair resulted in Minna’s pregnancy followed by an abortion. Freud reacted to Jung’s hostility with disinterest.
Freud once visited his colleague Ludwig Binswanger in Kreuzlingen, but did not pay a visit to Carl in nearby Zürich. Carl felt ruthlessly insulted by this incident, which he referred to as the Kreuzlingen gesture.
The correspondence between the two final came to end with a letter from Sigmund Freud to Carl Jung, which read,
Later in 1912, Freud and Carl met in Munich to discuss psychoanalytical journals. Here Freud had a sudden fainting spell. It is said that Carl picked up Freud and carried him to a nearby couch. Carl and Freud personally met for the last time in September of 1913, at the Fourth International Psychoanalytical Congress, in Munich. Jung gave a talk on psychological types, the introverted and the extraverted type, in analytical psychology. This talk introduced some of the key concepts which distinguished Carl's work from Freud's for the next half century
Parting with Freud left Jung shattered to a great extent, he resigned from the International Psychoanalytic Congress in 1914. The rivalry growing between the two was clearly visible in the letters they exchanged. At one point, Jung sarcastically wrote, "...your technique of treating your pupils like patients is a blunder. In that way you produce either slavish sons or impudent puppies... I am objective enough to see through your little trick."
Hence in order to discover the mysteries of the unconscious psyche Carl soon began an intensified self-analysis (an examination of oneself). From 1913 to 1921 Jung published three important papers: "Two Essays on Analytical Psychology" (1916, 1917) and "Psychological Types" (1921). The "Two Essays" provided the basic ideas from which his later work was developed. He described his research on psychological typology (the classification of personalities by studying their similarities and differences)—that there are two basic classifications, or "two types of personalities," in the way they relate to the world: introversion and extroversion. Introversion, in which one has the characteristic of being self-involved, withdrawn, occupied with one's "inner world." Extroversion, in which one relates to the world through social involvement and has interests outside of oneself and is "outgoing." He articulated the idea that it is the "personal equation" which, often unconsciously but in agreement with one's own typology, "influences how an individual observes and interacts with their world."
This was his first achievement, later he differentiated four functions of the mind—thinking, feeling, sensation, and intuition—one or more of which predominate in any given person. Results of this study were embodied in Psychologische Typen (1921; Psychological Types, 1923).
Carl’s psychiatric theories were effective and wholesome unlike his predecessor’s theories. Instead of treating the unconscious and conscious as separate entities, he saw them as an integrated psyche of a single mind. Consequently, integrating psychology with religion he also accepted the mystery of the soul as the evidence.
Individuation is the core of analytical psychology. Carl considered individuation as the psychological process of integrating the opposites. Thus, according to him, on one hand, the conscious and unconscious minds were relatively autonomous entities that were operating within the single mind. However, on the other hand, both parts of the mind worked together to contribute to the central process of human development.
From the point of view of the old aristocratic thought that the division in the personality within is not seen outside, analytical psychology is a smart improvisation. It reiterates that though the outside mind has a cultured demeanor that is in harmony with the society, there is more than what meets the eye.
The conscious and the unconscious are two beings operating simultaneously and harmoniously. In his childhood, Carl had named his conscious mind as "Personality Number 1" and unconscious mind as "Personality Number 2". According to him, "Personality Number 1" or the conscious mind was the normal school going boy and "Personality Number 2" or the unconscious mind was the dignified, authoritative and influential man that was a cumulative entity derived from the past.
As an extension of his findings of the nature of the conscious and unconscious parts of the mind, Jung’s theory divided the mind into three parts: Ego; Personal Unconscious and the Collective Unconscious.
This is the conscious mind that manifests in the outside.
This part of the mind is just a level below the conscious mind. It is that part of the unconscious that is waiting to gradually move into the conscious level. The personal unconscious is that part of the unconscious that is constituted of personal memories that are remembered, forgotten and suppressed. This part does not include instincts as purported by Freud.
Collective Unconscious or Psychic Inheritance
This is Jung’s unique contribution to psychology. Jung understood that every human mind has a common reservoir that has the total experience of mankind stored. This part of the mind has a huge influence especially on human emotional behavior. Though we do not have a direct access to the collective unconscious, indirect manifestations such as dreams, archetypes and mythology can be used as tools to study the unconscious mind.
Mythology is a record of the cultural interpretation of archetypes that have been mentioned above. It helps us to interpret the unconscious mind in a near systematic fashion.
Carl’s main contribution was his discovery that man's fantasy life has a definite makeup. Carl presumed that there are subtle active centers in the unconscious which control natural behavior and free imagination. These together formed Jung's concept of archetypes. Archetype is an unlearned tendency to experience or understand things in a certain way. It is formless like Freud’s instincts. Yet, unlike instincts, it acts in an organized fashion. It attracts experiences much like the black hole in space that draws light and matter to itself. A few examples of archetypes that are hitherto found across cultures and time zones are mother, child, father, death, life, family, animal, man, woman and sex.
"An individual will dream on impulse, and these dreams will have a theme or story similar to a fairy tale, or a myth, from a time long past, that are unknown to the person dreaming." What Carl meant was that archetypal symptoms (memories of experiences of people from the past that are present in every person's unconscious mind) belong to human beings of all ages and have always been the expression of a collective body of man's basic psychic nature. Many neurotic sufferings have happened due to a feeling of self-estrangement (the alienation of oneself from oneself) because of man's creation of a logical framework and control of his dependence on these "memories" of experiences that exist in the unconscious.
As a boy Carl had some weird powerful fantasies or dreams that had developed in intensity through the years. After his break with Freud, during self analysis he deliberately allowed this aspect of himself to function again and studied the experience and responses scientifically by keeping detailed notes of the same. He later developed the theory that these experiences came from an area of the mind that he called the collective unconscious, which he held was shared by everyone. This much argued conception was combined with a theory of archetypes that Carl held as fundamental for the study of the psychology of religion. In Carl’s terms, "archetypes are instinctive patterns, have a universal character, and are expressed in behaviour and images"
In order to study in depth the archetypal patterns and processes, Carl visited and lived among the Pueblo Indians of New Mexico and Arizona in 1924 and 1925 and among the inhabitants of Mt. Elgon in Kenya during 1925 and 1926,the so-called primitive tribes.He later visited Egypt and India. For Carl, the religious symbols and phenomenology (a system of beliefs developed by studying peoples understanding and awareness of themselves) of Buddhism and Hinduism and the teachings of Zen Buddhism and Confucianism all distinguished with respect to a man’s experience to find a path to his inner world, a world which was badly neglected by Western civilization.
Carl also searched for traditions in Western culture, which he found in Gnosticism (belief that personal freedom comes through spiritual knowledge and understanding), Christian mysticism (the belief that instinct and spiritual feeling are the ways to find God), and, above all, occultism (knowledge or use of supernatural powers).
Some of his major works are profound and understandable psychological interpretations of alchemical (the ability and power to make common things special) writings, which are significant for understanding dreams and the hidden subject matter of neurotic and mental disorders.
The turning point in Jung’s view of the human psyche came to him in a surprisingly impossible manner. One day while he was travelling in a speeding train with a patient who was narrating about a certain type of beetle that visited her in her dream, to all of their amazement, the same kind of beetle hit the nearby window of the train at the same instant.
They were travelling through a part of the country where this particular type of beetles is very rare. This set Jung thinking whether the narration of the dream influenced the reality or reality is just following the narration. In other words, every one’s experience of reality is unique. Hence, there is no solid reality at all and what we call reality is just a projection of the collective unconscious of the human psyche.
Jung was further inspired to propound an Oneness theory to unite the unconscious and conscious parts of the human psyche.
In synchronicity one touches the very truth of existence itself – ‘that the universe is a mere reflection of the mind within. As the mind thinks, the universe shapes from the thoughts. In other words, universe is in tandem with the human psyche.
The ancients had wisely stated this in two potent words -- "Aham Brahmasvi". In synchronicity one realizes the fluidity of reality and how it is directly dependent on the mind.
To reach this state of synchronicity & experience this basic truth about ourselves and the universe, one has to be in the "here & now". And, to be in the here & now mind should be unbridled by fears of the future and doubts arising from the knowledge of the past only then can it exist without anxieties in the present.
And Jung realized that only in the here and now are we the true architects of our destinies.
Truth is vital for synchronicity because any form of dishonesty breeds guilt. Since our conscience knows the truth, we are always in a state of conflict. The spirituality that has stemmed from this conflict though called a reality has actually originated from an illusion: A "microcosmic" dream within the "macrocosmic" dream. And, only with a crystal clear conscience can one undertake this spiritual voyage of being in the "now".
This is the true rapport of the core of Bhagwat Gita "Do your karma; do not bother about the fruits", and the spiritually inclined Jung found validity to this idiom analytically and experientially in the form of his brain child called synchronicity.
The question whether the thought influences the reality or reality influences the thought is akin to the popular question whether the egg came first or the chick. And, Jung realized through synchronicity that the answer is both and neither.
Nature of his psychotherapy
Carl now devoted rest of his life I developing his ideas, especially those about the relation between psychology and religion. In his view, "obscure and often neglected texts of writers in the past shed unexpected light " not only on his own dreams and fantasies but also on those of his patients; he thought it was necessary for the psychotherapists to become familiar with writings of the old masters .
Besides developing new psychotherapeutic methods derived from his own experience and the theories developed from them, Carl gave new meaning to the so-called Hermetic tradition. He conceived that "the Christian religion was part of a historic process necessary for the development of consciousness," Hhe also thought that the heretical movements which started with Gnosticism and ended in alchemy, were expressions of the unconscious archetypal elements , and were not satisfactorily expressed in conventional Christianity. He was also impressed with his finding that alchemical-like symbols could be found frequently in modern dreams and fantasies, and he thought that alchemists had constructed a kind of textbook of the collective unconscious. He explained this in 4 out of the 18 volumes that make up his Collected Works.
His historical studies helped him in pioneering the psychotherapy of the middle-aged and elderly; especially those who felt their lives had no meaning left. His therapy helped these people to appreciate their lives taking to consideration the success of their life. Carl also found that these people, who had also lost belief in religion, could discover Jung found that if they could discover their own fairy story as articulated in their dream and imagination, thus becoming more complete personalities. He called this process individuation.
In 1933 he became professor of psychology at the Federal Polytechnic University in Zürich, and held that post till 1941 (1933–41). He also became the professor of medical psychology at the University of Basel in 1943.
Carl Jung's near-death experience
Jung he had to give his psychological practice, writings and explorations up in 1944 due to a severe heart attack. In a hospital in Switzerland in 1944, Carl had a heart attack and then a near-death experience. Carl confesses being encountered with the light. This experience was inimitable as he saw the Earth from a vantage point of about a thousand miles above it. He gave an accurate view of the Earth from outer space, and its only two decades before astronauts in space described it first. Consequently he spoke of life after death, and recalled the meditating Hindu from his near-death experience and read it as a parable of the archetypal Higher Self, the God-image within. Carl, who founded analytical psychology, centered on the archetypes of the collective unconscious. The following is an extract from his autobiography entitled Memories, Dreams, and Reflections describing his near-death experience
Secret reveled , which was not secret???
Frank McLynn has alleged that Jung was a notorious womanizer who frequently had affairs with his patients and former patients. He claimed that Jung's "mother complex" caused his relation with his wife to go bitter while destining him to a life of promiscuity. McLynn, is very hostile towards Carl, and may have overstated Carl's promiscuity, but there is no doubt that Carl had several extramarital affairs. In a letter to Freud dated January 30, 1910, Jung wrote: "The prerequisite for a good marriage, it seems to me, is the license to be unfaithful"
Sabrina may have been the first female patient that became Carls’ lover, but she was not the last. The most evident of all of Carl’s affairs was that with Antonia (Toni) Wolff, a dark-eyed beauty who first met Jung when she was just a 22 year old. Toni too was Carl’s patient who later became his lover, received training analysis from Carl and went on to become an analyst in future after complete recovery. It is said that after Carl’s break up with Freud , Toni and not his wife Emma, helped him come out if his insanity and depression. Carl had become completely dependent on Toni, and to such an extent that he persuaded his wife to allow him to have an affair with Toni. Emma although reluctant , agreed. She was never happy with this decision.
McLynn paints a picture of Emma, Carl, and Toni in a menage à trois, but such was not the case. Alan Elms's depiction of this relationship is probably more accurate. According to Elms, Carl spent Wednesday evenings with Toni, and Toni visited Carl’s household for Sunday dinner with Carl, Emma, and the children, who did not like her presence.
Carl - Toni relation lasted at least for two decades. Carl never made any effort to hide this relationship. Still the name Toni Wolff is no where mentioned in Carl’s autobiography, Memories, Dreams, Reflections. It can be probably due Carl’s children’s hatred towards Toni. As adults they understood the trauma their mother Emma went through while Carl openly carried an affair with her. Hence, he had no disposition to publicize the explicit details of the same. Toni died at the age of 63; Carl did not attend her funeral even though she served him as a second wife and supported him, during his midlife crisis.
Emma never left Carl; she was besides him till her death in 1955. But before her death when she was seriously ill she asked Miss Ruth bailey, an Englishwomen and a family friend to take care of Carl after her death.
It is said that in later years Carl Jung had a charming smile, with a ruddy complexion. He was now 85 and was living life to his fullest with Miss Bailey looking after his material needs. He had a private retreat besides Lake Lucerne near Bollingen. This retreat was an old stone tower, which provided him with a place to rest, meditate and write. People frequently saw Carl sitting on the lawn watching his great grandchildren play.
Carl Jung is survived by a son and four daughters. He had nineteen grandchildren and nine great-grandchildren as of last year.
Over the door of his Kuessnacht home is carved the Latin inscription:
Vocatus atqua non vocatus deus aderit. (Called or not called, God is present.)
Carl died on 6th June, 1961, at the age of 85. Reasons are still unknown although as per a local newspaper Carl died due to some illness.
At the age of 38, Carl had experienced "confrontation with the unconscious". He saw visions and heard voices. He was initially confused and thought that he was "menaced by a psychosis" or was "doing schizophrenia." But soon he realized that this experience could help in his studies, so he induced hallucinations, or, in his words, "active imaginations." He noted everything he felt and experienced in small journals as scientific evidence. These were a part of a large red leather-bound book; a book he worked on for sixteen years. A book, which was never meant to be published.
In 2007, two technicians for Digital Fusion, working with the publisher, W. W. Norton & Company, painstakingly scanned one-tenth of a millimeter at a time with a 10,200-pixel scanner. It was published on October 7, 2009 (ISBN 978-0-393-06567-1) in German with "separate English translation along with Shamdasani's introduction and footnotes" at the back of the book, according to Sara Corbett for The New York Times. She wrote, "The book is bombastic, baroque and like so much else about Carl Jung, a willful oddity, synched with an antediluvian and mystical reality."
Jung left no instructions about the final disposition of what he called the "Red Book" after his death. Hence after his death his family moved it into a bank vault in 1984. Sonu Shamdasani, a historian from London, for three years tried to persuade Carl’s heirs to have it published, but was declined every time. But by mid-September 2009, after two dozen people having read it, Hoerni, Carl’s grandson decided to publish it to raise the required funds needed for the foundation of the Philemon Foundation (a non-profit foundation dedicated to preparing for publication the Complete Works of C.G. Jung.) The Red Book also includes an extensive introduction and a translation into English.
The Rubin Museum of Art in New York City displayed the original Red Book journal, as well as some of Jung's original small journals, from October 7, 2009 to January 25, 2010. According to them, "During the period in which he worked on this book Jung developed his principal theories of archetypes, collective unconscious, and the process of individuation." Two-thirds of the pages bear Jung's illuminations of the text.
Coming from the synthesis of Freud’s psychoanalysis, personal childhood experiences and later realizations Jung too held the initial years of a child to be the formative building block of an adult. This meant that the core of a psyche is an amalgam of a thinker, philosopher and an artist just as in a child. He would later resort to art as a form of releasing dormant tendencies accumulated in the childhood to free the mind.
Art is the only form of expression where man is the most comfortable with. This is because human mind usually thinks in terms of visuals rather than words. This form of healing is a reflection of the ancient process of using Mandals to communicate even the most difficult spiritual concepts and archetypes.
Alcoholic Anonymous (AA)
Jung had his first analytical failures when treating an alcoholic hopelessly beyond redemption. In the end, he advised him that only a spiritual experience can elevate his misery. The patient took his words seriously and embarked on a spiritual cleansing process and it worked. For the first time, he could be free from alcoholism. He communicated the same to Carl Jung and thanked him.
Jung took this seriously and started a group known as the Oxford Group to replay the healing for other alcoholics. In fact, he was in cahoots with Bill Wilson, the co founder of AA.
Thus, Jung had a pivotal role in this ongoing success story. Even today AA is the only sharing and healing platform for alcoholics’ worldwide.
JUNG’S STANDING IN THE TWENTIENTH CENTURY
Carl Jung's concepts of introversion and extraversion have contributed to personality psychology and also influenced psychotherapy.
The evidence gathered is compelling. It is estimated that over the next 20 years mental health conditions alone will account for the loss of US$ 16.1 trillion over this time span, with a dramatic impact on productivity and quality of life.
The application of Jung’s theories is still relevant in the treatment of common mental illnesses such as depression, anxiety, schizophrenia and multiple personality disorders which inflict the modern world.
Much before Albert Einstein discovered "spooky action at a distance" in 1935, Jung had already experienced it. "Spooky action at a distance": When two particles which were once physically joined together, behaved identically no matter how far apart they are kept after that. In the book "Brief History of Time" by Stephen Hawkings the same idea is taken further. Since the Big Bang is scientifically accepted and the universe emanated from an expanding singularity which has no space or time, the whole universe is in sync. Only a thought can instantly travel, faster than light.
The Indian yogis were known to practice samadhi where time doesn't exist since they stopped thoughts and thus reach the same singularity. Hence even Gautam Buddha proclaimed that what we take as real is but a projection of the mind. After Buddha, Carl was the first one to document that the thoughts attract the concerned though causality.
The more we know of Carl Gustav Jung, the more we understand ourselves and the workings of our psyche and the ways to improve the quality of our lives.