Health And Disability Commissioner Health And Social Care Essay

New Zealand Public Health and Disability Act

The NZPHD Act establishes the structure underlying public sector funding and the organisation of health and disability services. It establishes district health boards (DHBs), and sets out the duties and roles of key participants, including the Minister of Health, Ministerial committees, and health sector provider organisations.

The NZPHD Act also sets the strategic direction and goals for health and disability services in New Zealand. These include to improve health and disability outcomes for all New Zealanders, to reduce disparities by improving the health of Maori and other population groups, to provide a community voice in personal health, public health, and disability support services and to facilitate access to, and the dissemination of information for, the delivery of health and disability services in New Zealand.

Health and disability strategies

The Minister of Health is responsible for strategies that provide a framework for the system and for reporting on their implementation to Parliament. (In the case of the New Zealand Disability Strategy, this responsibility is shared with the Minister for Disability Issues.)

Service Delivery

District health boards

The New Zealand Public Health and Disability Act 2000 created DHBs.

It sets out their objectives, which are:

improving, promoting and protecting the health of people and communities

promoting the integration of health services, especially primary and secondary care services

seeking the optimum arrangement for the most effective and efficient delivery of health services in order to meet local, regional, and national needs

Promoting effective care or support of those in need of personal health services or disability support.

Other DHB objectives include:

promoting the inclusion and participation in society and the independence of people with disabilities

reducing health disparities by improving health outcomes for Māori and other population groups

reducing – with a view toward elimination – health outcome disparities between various population groups.

DHBs are expected to show a sense of social responsibility, to foster community participation in health improvement, and to uphold the ethical and quality standards commonly expected of providers of services and public sector organisations.

Health and Disability Commissioner

The main role of the Health and Disability Commissioner  an independent Crown entity, is to ensure that the rights of consumers are upheld, and health or disability service providers learn to improve their performance. This includes making sure that consumer complaints are taken care of fairly and efficiently. The HDC also provides funding for a national advocacy service to help consumers with complaints.

As of 1 July 2012, the HDC has also assumed the monitoring and advocacy functions previously delivered by the Mental Health Commission.  A Mental Health Commissioner position, reporting to the Health and Disability Commissioner, has been established to oversee the performance of these new functions.

Non-governmental Organisations

Non-governmental organisations have a long, well established record of contribution to New Zealand’s health and disability service delivery. Health and Disability NGOs include a wide range of organisations that provide flexible, responsive and innovative frontline service delivery. Diverse services are offered in primary care, mental health, personal health, and disability support services, and include kaupapa services such as Māori and Pacific providers.

The Ministry of Health and NGOs from the health and disability sector have a formalised relationship outlined in the Framework for Relations between the Ministry of Health and Health and Disability Non-governmental Organisations. To facilitate this relationship there is an NGO Working Group, and within the Ministry of Health an NGO Desk.

Public Health Units

Public health units focus on environmental health, communicable disease control, tobacco control and health promotion programmes. Many of these services include a regulatory component performed by statutory officers appointed under various statutes, though principally under the Health Act

Primary Health Organisation

PHOs are one vehicle through which the Government’s primary health care objectives articulated through Better, Sooner, More Convenient Primary Health Care are implemented in local communities. PHOs vary widely in size and structure, although all are not-for-profit organisations.

A PHO provides services either directly or through its provider members. These services should improve and maintain the health of the entire enrolled PHO population, as well as providing services in the community to restore people’s health when they are unwell. The aim is to ensure GP services are better linked with other primary health services (such as allied health services) to ensure a seamless continuum of care, in particular to better manage long term conditions.


Republic Act 9442 - Magna Carta for Disabled Persons, and For Other Purposes Granting Additional Privileges and Incentives and Prohibitions on Verbal, Non-verbal Ridicule and Vilification against Persons with Disability

Policies and Objectives " It is the objective of Republic Act No. 9442 to provide persons with disability, the opportunity to participate fully into the mainstream of society by granting them at least twenty percent discount in all basic services. It is a declared policy of RA 7277 that persons with disability are part of Philippine society, and thus the State shall give full support to the improvement of their total well-being and their integration into the mainstream of society. They have the same rights as other people to take their proper place in society. They should be able to live freely and as independently as possible. This must be the concern of everyone "the family, community and all government and non-government organizations. Rights of persons with disability must never be perceived as welfare services. Prohibitions on verbal, non-verbal ridicule and vilification against persons with disability shall always be observed at all times.

Service Delivery

Persons with disability shall be entitled to the following:

Discounts from All Establishments "At least twenty percent discount from all establishments relative to the utilization of all services in hotels and similar lodging establishments, restaurants and recreation centres for the exclusive use or enjoyment of persons with disability.

Hotels and Similar Lodging Establishments – The discount shall be for room accommodation and other amenities offered by the establishment such as but not limited to massage parlour, sauna bath, food, drinks and other services offered.

The discount will only apply to persons with disability. No discount will be given to companion without disability.

Restaurant "The discount shall be for the purchase of food drinks, beverages, dessert and other consumable items served by the establishments including value meals and other similar food counters, fast food, cooked food and short orders including take-outs. To safeguard the establishments from abuse of this privilege, the orders should be limited only to persons with disability personal consumption.

For a group of people with a person with disability, only the proportionate share of person with disability will be given discount. In case of banquet and catering services especially in seminars and other similar activities the discount will apply only to customers with disability.

Sports and Recreational Centres – The discount shall apply to all charges in the utilization of the services including rentals of all facilities and equipment and other accessories and gadgets relative to the enjoyment of the sports and recreational services. The discount shall also include rooms or halls for PWD seminars, art workshops and other persons with disability activities.

Purchase of Medicine – at least twenty percent discount on the purchase of medicine for the exclusive use and enjoyment of persons with disability. All drug stores, hospital, pharmacies, clinics and other similar establishments selling medicines are required to provide at least twenty percent discount subject to the guidelines issued by DOH and PHILHEALTH.

Admission Fees Privilege. – A minimum of at least twenty percent discount on admission fees charged by theatres, cinema houses and concert halls, circuses, carnivals, and other similar places of culture, leisure and amusement such as but not limited to museum, exhibit halls, fairs, parks like theme parks and shall be granted for the exclusive use or enjoyment of persons with disability.

Medical and Dental Privileges in Government Facilities – The person with disability shall be provided at least twenty percent discounts on medical and dental services including diagnostic and laboratory fees such as, but not limited to, x-rays, computerized tomography scans and blood tests in all government facilities, subject to guidelines to be issued by DOH in coordination with the Philippine Health Insurance Corporation .

Air and Sea Transportation Privileges – At least twenty percent discounts in fare for domestic air, and sea travel based on the actual fare except promotional fare. If the promotional fare discount is higher than the twenty percent discounts privilege, the persons with disability may choose the promotional fare and should no longer be entitled to the twenty percent discounts privileges

Land Transportation Privileges – At least twenty percent discounts in bus fares such as ordinary, aircon fares and on public railways such as LRT, and such other similar infrastructure that will be constructed, established and operated by public or private entity. Toll fees of skyways and expressways are likewise subject to at least twenty percent discounts, however, this privilege can be availed only by a person with disability owning the vehicle.

The Department of Transportation and Communications , Light Rail Transit Authority ( Philippine National Railways Toll Regulatory Board and Land Transportation Franchising and Regulatory Board shall issue corresponding circulars or directives to the public land transport sector for the implementation of these rules to ensure compliance herewith, as well as requirements to these operators to disseminate information on the benefits of the persons with disability by posters, handbills or pamphlets on board their vehicles.

Educational Privileges. – Educational assistance to persons with disability, for them to pursue primary, secondary, tertiary, post tertiary, as well as vocational or technical education in both public and private schools through the provision of scholarships, grants, financial aids, subsidies and other incentives to qualified persons with disability, including support for books, learning materials, and uniform allowance, to the extent feasible: Provided, that persons with disability shall meet the minimum admission requirements set by the Department of Education Commission on Higher Education Department Technical Education and Skills Development Authority and other entities engaged in the grant of scholarship and financial assistance for the education of persons with disability.

Benefits and Privileges for Retirees with Disability

Retirement benefits of retirees from both the government and the private sector shall be regularly reviewed to ensure their continuing responsiveness and sustainability, and to the extent practicable and feasible, shall be upgraded to be at par with the current scale enjoyed by those in active service;

Privileges on Granting Special Discounts in Special Programs "To the extent possible, the government may grant special discounts in special programs for persons with disability on purchase of basic necessities and prime commodities in supermarkets and grocery stores. The Department of Trade and Industry and the Department of Agriculture shall issue necessary guidelines for the implementation of this scheme.

Transportation discount fare Identification Card (ID) issued by the National Council for the Welfare of Disabled Persons However, upon effectively of this Implementing Rules and Regulations, NCWDP will already adopt the Identification card issued by the Local Government Unit for purposes of uniformity in the implementation. NCWDP will provide the design and specification of the identification card that will be issued by the Local Government Units.

Tax Incentives for Benefactors. "Those caring for and living with a person with disability shall be granted incentives in accordance with the provisions of the National Internal Revenue Code, as amended. For purposes of granting the incentives, persons with disability shall be treated as dependents under Section 35(A) of the National Internal Revenue Code, as amended, and as such, individual taxpayers providing care for them shall be accorded the privileges granted by the Code insofar as having dependents under the same section are concerned.

Availment of the head of family status by benefactors of persons with disability. A benefactor of a person with disability whose civil status is single shall be considered as head of family and shall be allowed to avail himself/herself of that status. As such, he shall be entitled only to one basic personal exemption equivalent to Twenty-five thousand pesos (P25,000), or as allowed thereafter under the National Internal Revenue Code.

Married individuals with child/children with disability. – A married individual is entitled to a basic personal exemption equivalent to Thirty-two thousand pesos (P32,000) under Section 35(B) of the National Internal Revenue Code, as amended. If the married individual has a child or has children with disability, who is/are dependent on him/her for support, he/she shall be entitled to an additional exemption of Eight thousand pesos per qualified dependent (not exceeding four). A married individual is not entitled to the above additional exemption if he/she takes care of a person with disability who is not his/her child, unless he/she legally adopts the same


Persons with Disabilities Act 2008 (Act 685)

Promotion and Development of the Quality of Life and Wellbeing of Persons with Disabilities

Access to Public Facilities, Amenities and Services and Buildings

Persons with disabilities shall have the right to access to and use of, public facilities, amenities, services and buildings open or provided to the public on equal basis with persons without disabilities, but subject to the existence or emergence of such situations that may endanger the safety of persons with disabilities.

the Government and the providers of such public facilities, amenities, services and buildings should make sure and take necessary measures to ensure that such public facilities, amenities, services and buildings and the improvement of the equipment related thereto design in order to facilitate their access and use by persons with disabilities.

Access to Education

Sevice Delivery

Persons with disabilities shall not be excluded from the general education system on the basis of disabilities, and children with disabilities shall not be excluded from pre-school, primary, secondary and higher education, on equal basis with persons or children without disabilities, including vocational training and lifelong learning.

The Government and private educational providers shall, in order to enable persons and children with disabilities to pursue education, provide reasonable accommodation suitable with the requirements of persons and children with disabilities in terms of, among others, infrastructure, equipment and teaching materials, teaching methods, curricula and other forms of support that meet the diverse needs of persons or children with disabilities.

The Government and private educational providers shall take right steps and measures to enable persons and children with disabilities to learn life and social development skills in order to facilitate their full and equal participation in education including the following:

to ensure that the education of persons, and in particular children, who are blind, deaf or deaf-blind is delivered in the most appropriate languages and modes and means of communication for the individual, and in environments which maximize academic and social development.

Access to Employment

Persons with disabilities shall have the right to access to employment on equal basis with persons without disabilities.

The employer shall protect the rights of persons with disabilities, on equal basis with persons without disabilities, to just and favourable conditions of work, including equal opportunities and equal remuneration for work of equal value, safe and healthy working conditions, protection from harassment and the redress of grievances.

The employer shall in performing their social obligation endeavour to promote stable employment for persons with disabilities by properly evaluating their abilities, providing suitable places of employment and conducting proper employment management.

Access to Cultural Life

Persons with disabilities shall have the right to access to cultural life on an equal basis with persons without disabilities.

Persons with disabilities shall have the right to enjoy access—

to cultural materials in accessible formats;

to television programmes, films, theatre and other cultural activities, in accessible formats;

to places for cultural performances or services such as theatres, museums, cinemas, libraries and tourism services, and, as far as possible, sites of national cultural importance

In-home, Residential and Other Community Support Services

The council, the private sector and non-governmental organization shall take appropriate measures to encourage and promote the provision of a range of in-home, residential and other community support services to prevent isolation or segregation of persons with disabilities from the community.

Access to Health

Persons with disabilities shall have the right to the enjoyment of health on an equal basis with persons without disabilities.

The council, the private sector and non-governmental organization shall take appropriate measures to ensure persons with disabilities have access to health services, including health related rehabilitation, that are gender sensitive

Protection of Persons with Severe Disabilities

Lifelong Protection and Social Support System

The Government shall provide the necessary lifelong protection and social support system including ensuring that the welfare of persons with severe disabilities remain unaffected after the death of their parents or their caregivers in order to enable the persons with severe disabilities to lead a better quality of life.

Any non-governmental organization intending to provide or providing institutional care for persons with severe disabilities or the caregivers for persons with severe disabilities may make an application for an incentive for providing such care to the council in such form and manner as may be prescribed.

The council may, if it is satisfied that the application of the non-governmental organization or caregivers referred to in subsection (2) should be considered, grant such incentive as it deems appropriate with the approval of the Minister responsible for


The policies of the following countries - New Zealand, Philippines, and Malaysia – all promote the development of quality life for persons with disabilities. The policies acknowledge the importance of access to the economic, social, cultural, health, education, public transport, and information technology. In addition, the service delivery does not only provide for the registration, protection, and rehabilitation, but also emphasises on disability support services and information dissemination, in partnership with the government, non-government organisations, and the community. The policies encourage persons with disabilities to fully and actively participate in the society.

Unlike the two Southeast Asian countries, the service delivery on disability in New Zealand includes the health of the Maori and other population groups. The Philippines and Malaysia, on the other hand, does not mention any indigenous group in their policies. The health and disability services in New Zealand and Philippines both have publicly funded health and disability services mentioned in their policies and provide discounts, subsidies on prescription items, and a range of support services for people with disabilities in the community.


New Zealand

Office for Senior Citizens

The Office for Senior Citizens provides information on the senior citizens sector promotes and monitors the Positive Ageing Strategy; and provides services to the Minister for Senior Citizens.

The Office for Senior Citizens is one of the population offices within the Ministry with a primary focus to build strong social sector relationships to inform the Minister for Senior Citizens about issues affecting older people. Our key functions are to:

Lead the New Zealand Positive Ageing Strategy by:

promoting positive ageing, with government agencies and community organisations

assisting government departments to identify work items to implement the Strategy

monitoring and reporting on progress of the Strategy’s goals, and

Manage the Volunteer Community Co-ordinators (VCCs) Programme. The VCCs are a network of older volunteers who bring a community perspective on issues relating to older New Zealanders to the work of the Office

Provide information to promote the rights and interests of older people

Entitlements for 65 plus

If you are aged 65 or over, or about to turn 65, certain entitlements become available to you.  These entitlements are in recognition of the valuable contributions you have made, and continue to make, to New Zealand society.

The Ministry of Social Development can help with living costs:

Help with housing costs

Help with health costs

Accommodation Supplement

Temporary Additional Support

Local Government Rates Rebate

Special Needs Grant

Funeral Grant

Discounts and concessions

SuperGold Card

The SuperGold Card is a convenient discount and concession card.  It is issued free to all eligible seniors and veterans, and those under 65 years of age currently receiving New Zealand Superannuation.  The SuperGold Card is issued automatically once you have been granted a New Zealand Superannuation, Veteran’s Pension or some other form of assistance from the Ministry of Social Development. 


Contribution to the Community. — Any qualified senior citizen as determined by the Office for Senior Citizen Affairs (OSCA) may render his/her services to the community which shall consist of, but not limited to, any of the following:

tutorial and/or consultancy services;

actual teaching and demonstration of hobbies and income generating skills;

lectures on specialized fields like agriculture, health, environmental protection and the like;

the transfer of new skills acquired by virtue of their training mentioned in Section 4, paragraph;

Undertaking other appropriate services as determined by the Office of Senior Citizens Affairs (OSCA) such as school traffic guide, tourist aid, pre-school assistant, etc.

Privileges for the Senior Citizens — the senior citizens shall be entitled to the following:

the grant of twenty percent (20%) discount from all establishments relative to utilization of transportation services, hotels and similar lodging establishment, restaurants and recreation centers and purchase of medicine anywhere in the country: Provided, That private establishments may claim the cost as tax credit;

a minimum of twenty percent (20%) discount on admission fees charged by theaters, cinema houses and concert halls, circuses, carnivals and other similar places of culture, leisure, and amusement;

exemption from the payment of individual income taxes: Provided, that their annual taxable income does not exceed the property level as determined by the National Economic and Development Authority (NEDA) for that year;

free medical and dental services in government establishment anywhere in the country, subject to guidelines to be issued by the Department of Health, the Government Service Insurance System and the Social Security System;

Government Assistance — The Government shall provide the following assistance to those caring for and living with the senior citizen:

The senior shall be treated as dependents provided for in the National Internal Revenue Code and as such, individual taxpayers caring for them, be they relatives or not shall be accorded the privileges granted by the Code insofar as having dependents are concerned.

Individuals or non-governmental institutions establishing homes, residential communities or retirement villages solely for the senior citizens shall be accorded the following:

Realty tax holiday for the first five (5) years starting from the first year of operation;

Priority in the building and/or maintenance of provincial or municipal roads leading to the aforesaid home, residential community or retirement village


The care and protection for older persons through institutional service provides health care, guidance, counselling, recreation and religious teachings. In addition, other programmes have been established to ensure the well-being of the older persons included:-

Financial Assistance

Day Care Centre for Older Persons

Homes for Older Persons Without Next of Kin

Programs and activities undertaken by Non-governmental organizations

National Celebration Day For Older Persons


With the rapidly changing socio-economic environment, there was a need to shift the emphasis of policies and programs from a welfare approach to a development approach that makes the elderly active participants in programmes to help them live less poverty-stricken, healthier and more socially supported lives. Thus, in October 1995 the National Policy for Older Persons was approved by the government. Malaysia is one of the earliest countries in the Asia Pacific region to have its own policy for older persons.

The Policy

Older persons are defined as persons aged 60 years and above. This definition is in line with the World Assembly on Ageing in 1982 in Vienna. The policy statement is as follow:



To establish and develop the dignity and respect for the elderly in the family, community and country.

To develop the potential among the elderly to maintain their activeness and productivity in the process of developing the country.

Encouraging creating facilities to ensure care and protection for the elderly towards a better living.

The Strategies

Respect and Dignity

Enable older persons to live with respect and self-worth, safe and free from exploitation and abuse;

Ensure older persons are given fair and equal treatment irrespective of age, sex, ethnicity, religion, disability or their ability to contribute;

Enable older persons to optimize their potential; and

Enable older persons to have access to educational, cultural, spiritual, and recreational resources in society.

Self Reliance

Ensure that older persons are able to fulfill their basic needs through income sources, family and societal support and self-effort;

Enable older persons to have access to opportunities to continue to serve and contribute;

Enable older persons to enjoy an environment that is safe and conducive in accordance to their needs and changing capacities


Enable older persons to play a role in society and be actively involved in the formulation and implementation of policies relating to their well-being and to pass on their knowledge and skills to younger generations;

Provide opportunities to older persons to voluntarily contribute to society in accordance with their abilities and interests

Care and Protection.

Establish facilities for care and protection within the family and society in line with the local socio-cultural systems;

Enable older persons to have access to health care to enable them to maintain or restore their optimum physical, mental and emotional health and for the prevention from ailment;

Enable older persons to have access to the services of institutions that provide care, protection and social and mental stimulation in a safe and comfortable environment;

Enable older persons to have access to social and legal services towards advancement of their individual rights, protection and care;

Research and Development

Encourage research on older persons for the purpose of compiling information for use in planning programmes for their development; and

Establish a National Advisory and Consultative Council for Older Persons to identify and coordinate the programmes and activities for older persons.


In concordance with The National Policy for Older Persons, the National Advisory and Consultative Council for Older Persons presently under the chairmanship of the Minister of Women, Family and Community Development were established in May 1996. The Council consists of 34 members from the various government agencies, NGOs, private sectors and individuals who have interest on ageing. The Department of Social Welfare under the Ministry is the secretariat for the Council and serves as the focal point for all issues related to ageing.

The Technical Committee of The National Policy for Older Persons was formed in July 1996 to work on the Plan of Action. Under the Technical Committee six sub-committees were formed to work on the major concerns of the Plan of Action to ensure the integration and participation of the elderly in the country’s development as follows:

Social and recreation.


Education, training and religion.





The implementation of the programmes and activities related to the older persons, irrespectively organized by individual, workgroup, voluntary organization, community, government organization or private sector should be in line with the National Policy for the Older Persons. Thus, all efforts in the implementation of the programmes/activities should be coordinated between the agencies concerned in the areas as below:

Education - the facilities in education and training for the older persons.

Working sector - older persons are encouraged to continue their contribution towards developing the country.

Participation in the Society - Older Persons are encouraged to involve in the family and social activities.

Recreational Activities - It is necessary for the local authority and government to provide the facilities in the housing areas, recreation parks and sport arenas which are older persons friendly.

Transportation - public transportation system should provide facilities for older persons to move from place to place.

Housing – when building the houses, should take into account that it is accessible to the older persons.

Family Support System - it is necessary to have support system in the community to assist families in caring for the older persons.

Health - medical facilities for the older persons.

Social security scheme - to create a comprehensive social security scheme towards a better future living for the older persons.

Media - electronic and printed media must play an active role to educate the public towards the older persons.

Research and Development - researches have to be done to get the real picture and the proper planning for the betterment of the older persons.


New Zealand, Malaysia, and the Philippines, all have been delivering services to the older persons or ageing population through the central and local government. The protection for older persons through institutional services has been created and should be in line with the government policies to ensure their well-being.

New Zealand has far more elderly individuals by statistics compared to the Southeast Asian countries; hence the range of programs, as well as budget for the elderly is substantial. In the Philippines and Malaysia, the services were planned to help the ageing population live less poverty-stricken, healthier and more socially supported lives. However, in New Zealand, the services are provided for those who are entitled and are provided in recognition to the valuable contributions they have made to the country.

In addition, New Zealand and Malaysia has established facilities to ensure proper care and protection for the older persons. Also, the New Zealand government have service delivery policies that are particularly for the elder Maori.