The Peshawar District Of Kpk Health And Social Care Essay

Chapter 1.

1. Introduction:

In last couple of decades cell phone has become of the main essential of communication in the world. Cell phone is more kind off a need of a person now days. It has become so common worldwide that cellphone industry is now developing very fast with respect to time and continuous improvement in technology. Cellphone is now the quickest and easiest way of contacting a person nationally or internationally. People respond to change because its human nature, I will study on the behavioral aspect of young generation and their response to continues changes in cellphone and its usage. Now new era of cellphones are smart phones through which one can connect through whole world in a single touch. Big multinational companies like Samsung and Apple are in the lead of this race of making a revolution through cellphone technology. Many features like receiving mail, news update, social media facebook and fun entertainment applications are making a basic cellphone much more then just a phone. Now people go to market not just buy a phone but now cellphone is also a way of making personal statement and making an image in the his\her family and friends. A good brand mobile is part of your personality style. This reasearch paper will mainly focus on how young generation is using cellphone and what are the aspects of cellphone usage among them and also getting knowlegde from different reaseach papers of various writer that what they have said about this topic. A sample of students will be selected from different universites of Peshawar and through questionair I will examine there reponce respectively. The reason of this study is first to inspect cell phone behavior among youth, and secondly to see what kind of differences there are between genders regarding cell phone manners. In addition to the gender differences, the plan is also to investigate if any patterns in the relationships among the behavior variables emerge between the genders; in other words are there any differences in the conceptualization of the cell phone behavior between the genders. Finally the purpose is to investigate if any distinct user clusters will emerge among the genders. I believe that the results will have important implications for the design and marketing of the cell phone related features and services.

1.2 Background:

In 2008 the cellphone usage was more the 4 billion, and it is expected that it will reach 4.5 billion by 2012. This shows a rapid change the usage of cellphone among people worldwide. In communication industry the youth generation is known by the name of sweet spot. Researcher found that young blood can easily adopt a certain change; Young people are very active consumers of cell phone related communication products. There is a continuous change occurring in cellular behavior. In 80s cell phone were mostly used for business purposes in order to contact employees more effectively. Then the traditions of SMS texting begin to rise up in 90s in order to communicate with friends and family. In 2000, with the help of technology new smart phones were introduced with excess of features in it like HD camera, Wi-Fi, social apps and much more. So we can expect that the behavior of cell phone will continue to grow and keep on changing. Cell phones are used for various purposes today to satisfy the behavioral needs of the users. These include safety and security, social interactions, connection with family, information search, management of everyday life (dependency), learning, communication, and even the delivery of health services. Cell phone are truly became the basic necessity of life now a days as it provide various important feature and one has to adopt it. The usage is driven by consumer trends like individualism, multitasking, increasing receptiveness to technology, convenience, and chaos in life. Generally speaking attitudes of males appear to be more positive to the use of computers than those of females, and the use of computers is stereotypically regarded more as a male activity. Research has also indicated that there is no dissimilarity between genders in the overall usage of Internet. However, differences in the way the Internet is used representative that females are more prone to use the Internet for communications purposes while the males play more games and search for information.

1.3 Problem statement:

Problem statement is can be that the designers and marketers of cell phones industry should pay attention to behavioral aspects of cell phone usage. Never the less they should also focus on gender differences in these behaviors and their conceptualizations should be carefully evaluated.

1.4 Research Objectives:

Objectives of this study are following:

To find out what is the importance of the specific cell phone behaviors among the young people in Peshawar currently?

To find how do diverse genders abstract the specific cell phone behaviors, and again are there any differences between genders regarding the conceptualization?

To find what kind of discrete user clusters are there in both gender groups on the foundation of the behavioral variables.

1.5 Hypotheses of the Study:

The main purpose of this study is to examine cellular behavior among new young generation and to find out what type of differences there are among gender regarding cellular behavior, or any differences in the conceptualization of the cell phone behavior among genders. Hypotheses of this research can be:

1(a) There is significant difference among male and female regarding cell phone usage.

1(b) There is not significant difference among male and female regarding cell phone usage.

2(a) There is specific concecptulization of cell phone among genders

2(b) There is no specific conceptulization of cell phone among genders.

1.6 Scope/Significance:

The scope of this study is wide because its concern with the young generation of the business school and their usage of cell phone in day to day life, also the comparison of applicable customer groups and cellular behavior which will also highlight the comparison of gender and broad cellular behavior. For the purpose of the study the following academic institutions have been selected (see table 1). These were selected based on the simple criteria that each institute must have a management degree program.

Table.1. Management degree institutes in the Peshawar district of KPK

Institute of Management sciences.

IQRA University.

Fast University.

Qurtaba University.

CECOS

Limitations of study

Some of the major limitations of this study are the continuous change in the cellphone industry can really affect the usage of cellphone among people especially the youth. Moreover in which way the effect of cellphone usage among youth will be realized. Futher moving on is the effect of cellphone usage is limited to young generation only or not. These afew limitation can effect the study in various manner.

Chapter 2.

2. Literature review:

Cellphone is mostly used to satisfy behavioral needs of a person which can be safety and security, social interfaces, connection with family and friends, information search, management of everyday life. Cellphone is considered as a modern necessity now days.

Some of the articles reviews about cellphone and the usage are discussed below;

Cellphone is widely adopted compared with personal computer into the lives of people of all society. The social acceptance of cellphone showed a variety of consequences in Irish society. The communication, relationship and social patterns with cellphone of teenagers were emerging around it, as it was influenced by many factors. Cellphone is a mean to control relationship with others as it change and became stronger by time. With time teenagers become more dependent on cellphone in order to be socialize in the society, manage their relationships and distributing information and facing the challenges of life.( Anthony Cawley, Deirdre Hynes, 2009).

This paper focused on how consumer change by gender in terms of the value required from mobile data services. Researchers found that the purpose to use cellphone service was obsessed by many values which can by utilitarian and hedonic. Moreover the results showed that both gender male and female consumer intention to use mobile service are almost the same. So we can say that mobile consumer market is not a homogenous group. It expresses us about the dynamic value in using mobile data services and give this information to mobile markets to use successfully positioning cellphone data services into target markets. (Kiseol Yang, Hyun-Joo Lee, 2009). This paper tells about the continuous change in the mobile industry. Now cellphone is used not just for calling one another but with smart phones one can see live TV, record HD videos and send data around the world through internet. With such a pace and technology advancement it is hard to forecast the future of mobile TV industry. But with one can say that now consumer is not just looking for contacting device, but he\she also requires an entertaining device. New advance and dynamic strategies will help cellphone makers to increase their customer satisfaction by providing more benefits and opportunities of making good revenue. (J.P. Shim, Sungmin Park, Julie M. Shim, 2008).

This research paper gives us a deeper look on the branding and promotion side of cellphone industry that how high brand equity cellphone industry gathers high number of customer. It tries to find out the effects and impact of various activities on consumer choice of cellphone brands. The Author found that the increase in the pricing gives a negative impact and making the market limited for high-oriented brands. They should apply a new strategy of lower down the price which will help them getting more subscribers. (Chu-Mei lui, 2002).

This study mainly focused on tweens (8-12 year old ) , the relationship between satisfaction and their loyalty to cellphone. With time and study authors found that this focused group is way more satisfied with cellphone as compared to mature people because cellphone fulfill their expectations. But they are not loyal to one brand. As children's are in a phase which is changing rapidly so that???s why they can't stick with one particular brand, they like to use different featured smart phone in order to entertain themselves.( Anne Martensen, 2007).

This study is about young consumer of cellphone and their frequently usage of SMS and their response towards SMS advertising. Results showed that because of quick response from other person and in cheap rate influence young chaps to be in contact with each other through SMS Although advertising through SMS is yet not showing any high response because the attitude of young consumers not positive. Mostly they SMS each other jokes and getting information as they are not in professional life yet so they don???t care about spreading or promotion any particular item, but with time may be SMS advertising will show high response because of continuous change in the behavioral aspect of cellphone usage.( Ian Phau and Min Teah, 2009).

In designing cellphone service usage the implementation of a holistic framework can be very useful. The value of this framework is organized and comprehensive way of dealing mobile services. It helps in forecasting and comparing the results of different service usage. It can also help in finding those places where future data collection might be required. This framework is very valuable for researcher in choosing the right technique to solve research problem of usage of cellphone services.( Timo Smura, Antero Kivi and Juuso To?? yli, 2009).

Mobile internet is kind of revolution in mobile industry because it helps a consumer to get its required information about anything anywhere with just a touch. The core of this study is to find out the several measures that imitates the distributions of the mobile internet. According to results in Finland, mobile internet is not yet rises up on a large scale because the handsets building in Finland are not compatible with mobile internet. However mobile internet is gathering attention of every segment of the market and consumers all around are willing of getting their hands on it. In this study 3 metrics are discussed that are the key driver of mobile internet. One should give some time to study early adopter user in order to forecast the new upcoming trends of industry. (Hannu Verkasalo, 2009).

In Turkey, researchers determining behavioral segments in the mobile market. Investigation was done with a 32 various characteristics in which 9 main standards of decision making rise up which are used for dividing market, 4 behavior sets know as pragmatic, abstemious, value-conscious and charismatic. Pragmatic give high importance to the functional, physical and convenience product. Abstemious gives importance to design with functionality. Value-conscious consumer's emphasis on price, the charismatic signifies the want-it-all group valuing. These 4 clusters play a vital role in decision making process and show the difference between these groups in their style of thinking. Further research can also help us to find out more about their behavioral segments and their relationships with various other factors. (Hande K??m??log??lu and V. Asl??han Nas??r, Su??phan Nas??r, 2010).

This emerging mobile industry is giving lots of opportunities in economy worldwide. The core of this study is to investigate the difference between heavy and light cellphone user. Heavy cellphone user usually have high brand loyalty to their mobile service and they limited to use one type on mobile content, while light consumer are keep on changing their mobile services and they stick to one mobile content. With the help of ANOVA heavy user subscribes to more than one type of mobile content and has high frequent access to purchase of mobile as compared to light users of mobile. This research delivers a dynamic perception on mobile phone usage for m-learning between Malaysian cellphone users. (Norbayah Mohd Suki, 2007).

2.1Research Questions:

Questions of this research are:

Is there any impact of cellphone usage among the young generation?

Continuous change in the cellphone industry can really affect the usage of cellphone among people especially the youth?

In which way the effect of cellphone usage among youth will be realized?

Is the effect of cellphone usage is limited to young generation only?

Chapter 3.

3. Data & Methodology:

3.1 Date type and Source:

For the determination of this study, Primary data is used. The respondents in this research came from different business universities located in Peshawar. (See table 1). In order to explore the cell phone behaviors of the youth in Peshawar a likert scale questionnaire was developed. The sample is made through an online technique which is sample size calculator, by selecting confidence level as 95% and confidence interval as 5% or 0.05, and putting the population size as (500) which are students of bachlers and master degree programs of different universities, calculating this population through sample size calculator we will get the required sample size for this research, which is (217) so, we will distribute the questionnaire among the given sample size.The questionnaire was distributed among the following universities and the response rate was very good, I collected 187 out of 217 questionnaires back from all universities and which was 86.5% response.(see table 2). Their ages were between 17 and 24 years. We asked the students to indicate their preference to the specific behaviors using a questionnaire with a Likert type scale 1-5 (1 strongly agree 5 strongly disagree). A 1st hand questionnaire was used to gather the data for four reasons. First, it was a common approach used in many research projects in the educational institution. Second, the use of a 1st hand based questionnaire is a best for personal interviews. Third, it was viewed as less intrusive and took less of the respondent???s time, and fourth the speed of collection throughout all the research phases was much faster.

Table 2: Sample Poplution

Male

Female

Total

Number of Respondents

94

93

187

Average age

(Standard deviation)

22.40

(1.53)

21.14

(1.73)

22.31

(1.60)

Empirical plan: As for the research on determinents of cell phone primary data was collected, through questionnaires from the Management degree Institutes in Peshawar. Initial Sample was 200 hard copies of the questionnaire were made. Initially, The 60 questionnaires were distributed in Im|sciences,43 in IQRA, 34 in Qurtaba, 27 in Cecos, 23 in Fast. and the data entry was started in SPPS for processing.The individuals who were having problems understanding were made aware of the theme and any difficulty was eased out by giving complete support and help in making the whole questionnaire or a specific question palatable for filling. The questionnaires were collected on the current day as students were very supportive and took interest while aswering every question. As my sample was 217 but got only 187 because the some of the questionnaires were not usable, damaged and not retruned.

3.2 Procedure/Technique:

Recent researches on cellphone usage revealed that the most effective method was the questionnaire based survey. As the behavioral aspect of cellphone usage is unknown among the business universities of KPK, a paper based Questioners was thus selected, fearing that some of the students may not be comfortable with a web based questioner. The Questioners is divided into two parts. First part focused on the demographics, while the other focused on frequency and usage.

Data collection: A survey was conducted to collect the data through questionnaires for primary data and some part of the research is secondary data (literature review). Data entry: The data was entered into SPSS 16.0.

3.3 Variables of Interest:

In this study my major variable of interest are age and gender because different aspects of cellphone usage are mainly connected with the age of the user and their gender.

3.4 Methodology:

To find out my first and second objective of this study we measured the means and standard deviations of the responses to the behavior variables (see Table 3).

To meet our third research objective, we carried out factor analysis in Spss 16.0 to recognize different patterns of specific behaviors. To find out the suitability of the factor analytic model, we first calculated correlation matrices separately for the male and female respondents. The appropriateness for the factor analysis can be discovered in the correlation matrix when it includes numerous correlations above 0.3.Factor analysis is also helpful to investigate whether the cell phone behavioral variables generate different factor structures between genders.

Note: p : 0.05, p : 0.01; the variables 1-7 reflect the ??????Necessity in modern times?????? factor, and variables 8-10 reflect the factor ??????Cost efficiency??????; the variables 13-19 reflect the ??????Safety/security?????? factor, variables 20-23 reflect the factor ??????Dependency??????; variables 24 28 reflect the ??????Negatives?????? factor, and variables 29-30 reflect the ??????Functionality?????? factor

Table :3 The gender differences in the specific cell phone behaviors

gender

male

female

Total

Mean

Std. Deviation

Mean

Std. Deviation

Mean

Std. Deviation

A cell phone allows me to use my time efficiently

1.7872

.90247

1.7419

.80627

1.7647

.85398

I use my cell phone to make use of time that otherwise would be wasted

2.5106

1.00263

2.4301

1.16468

2.4706

1.08407

we need a cell phone to be successful in the world today

2.3191

1.07975

2.3333

.93638

2.3262

1.00830

A cell phone allows me to do two things at once.

2.5851

1.07172

2.5699

1.11704

2.5775

1.09157

Cell phone saves my time in contacting people.

2.4362

1.07322

2.2258

1.01220

2.3316

1.04584

Those people who do not have a cell phone are out of touch with modern times.

2.2021

1.00086

2.1505

1.12236

2.1765

1.06047

The brand of a cell phone is important to me.

2.2340

.92079

2.2258

.95700

2.2299

.93645

I often use my cell phone to schedule/reschedule an appointment at the last minute.

2.3298

1.04097

2.2903

1.04861

2.3102

1.04215

It is financially beneficial to use a cell phone as opposed to a landline.

2.0532

1.05103

2.3226

.99084

2.1872

1.02771

A cell phone is more affordable than a landline phone service.

2.2872

1.15118

2.2473

1.02846

2.2674

1.08912

If I had to choose, I would use a cell phone instead of a landline because a cell phone is cheaper.

2.4043

1.15767

2.4946

1.11924

2.4492

1.13656

I do not use landlines because having a cell phone is cheaper

2.3617

1.12500

2.4839

1.02801

2.4225

1.07670

A cell phone is a cheaper alternative for long distance calls than a landline.

2.1064

1.05206

2.1398

.97347

2.1230

1.01115

Having a cell phone makes me feel safe while I am walking alone at night.

2.1383

1.16028

1.7634

1.04671

1.9519

1.11819

I use my cell phone to keep my parent from worrying about me.

2.2234

1.09892

2.1828

1.09292

2.2032

1.09318

I got my cell phone to use in case of emergency

2.1383

1.01177

2.3441

1.15622

2.2406

1.08799

My parent wanted me to have a cell phone so I can get in touch with her/him if necessary.

2.1170

1.04579

2.0000

1.01081

2.0588

1.02745

I feel lost when I leave my cell phone at home.

2.1383

.93442

2.1828

1.10282

2.1604

1.01914

When I do not have my cell phone with me, I feel disconnected.

2.3617

1.05597

2.2581

1.03107

2.3102

1.04215

I always leave my cell phone on.

2.1702

1.01217

2.2688

1.05439

2.2193

1.03178

I feel upset when I miss a call to my cell phone.

2.6383

1.16260

2.4839

1.03853

2.5615

1.10240

A cell phone distracts me from being aware of my surroundings.

2.3085

1.02681

2.2581

1.04156

2.2834

1.03170

I feel embarrassed by my cell phone ringing at inappropriate times.

2.4149

1.11113

2.1398

.90399

2.2781

1.02007

I am often distracted by my cell phone when driving.

2.1064

.97791

2.5484

1.06848

2.3262

1.04496

I am tired of being accessible all the time.

2.3085

1.09767

2.0753

.89972

2.1925

1.00822

A cell phone is addictive

2.3404

1.01126

2.2688

1.03356

2.3048

1.02029

I seldom use non-calling functions of my cell phone.

2.4149

.96620

2.3333

1.04604

2.3743

1.00482Chapter 4.

4.1 Data analysis

To answer our first research question the means, standard deviations, and significant differences between the genders of the cell phone behaviors were calculated see (Table 2) 13 of the 30 behavioral variables by the male users, and 21 by female users were reported as ''Agree''. Given that there were 187 observations (94 male and 93 female), we will perform factor analysis for our 3rd research objective. Finally communality measures were assessed as part of the factor analysis and variables with communalities less than 0.50 were dropped from further analysis. A communality of under 0.50 indicates that less than half of the variance in the item has been taken into account in identifying the latent construct. (See table 4 and 5).

In beginning the results show that the most important behavioral variables are concerned with safety, efficiency and dependency that are: ??????With a cell phone I can keep in touch with my family members??????, ??????I always leave my cell phone on??????, ??????A cell phone is more affordable than a landline phone service??????, ??????A cell phone allows me to use my time efficiently, and ??????We need a cell phone to be successful in the world today??????.

The slightest important behavioral variables are concerned with negativity which are:

??????I am often distracted by my cell phone when driving?????? and ??????I feel upset when I miss a call to my cell phone??????. So it is obvious form the study that negatively is not dominating behavior of cell phone usage among youth of Peshawar. Moving on, when looking at the ten most important variables it is obvious that the behaviors are fine stretch between the six behavioral factors categories, and thus no single behavioral factor dominates.

The results indicate that there are major differences in the 16 out of the 30 behavioral variables in the study. Most of the statistical differences were discovered in the ??????safety/security?????? and ??????functionality??????

Table 4: Rotated factor pattern and variable communalities for the male respondents

Component

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

A cell phone allows me to use my time efficiently

.285

.752

-.018

.078

.058

.016

-.043

.128

.128

.121

.004

I use my cell phone to make use of time that otherwise would be wasted

.357

.513

-.152

-.086

.128

-.030

-.356

.073

-.012

-.218

-.162

we need a cell phone to be successful in the world today

.466

.304

-.212

-.093

.269

.000

-.055

.003

-.219

-.266

.235

A cell phone allows me to do two things at once.

.423

.034

-.090

-.290

-.344

.310

-.343

.021

-.089

-.065

.325

Cell phone saves my time in contacting people.

.388

-.350

.086

-.315

-.148

.076

-.044

.197

-.298

-.077

.272

Those people who do not have a cell phone are out of touch with modern times.

.327

-.090

.232

.194

.021

.061

-.356

-.142

-.019

.124

-.339

The brand of a cell phone is important to me.

.307

.003

-.364

.013

.362

.392

.094

-.190

.130

-.018

-.184

I often use my cell phone to schedule/reschedule an appointment at the last minute.

.312

.060

.117

.410

.374

.305

.024

-.270

-.170

-.017

-.033

It is financially beneficial to use a cell phone as opposed to a landline.

.419

.140

-.176

.052

-.190

.120

.220

.264

-.311

.256

-.085

A cell phone is more affordable than a landline phone service.

.395

.129

-.163

-.186

-.452

-.227

.208

.106

-.060

.107

-.108

If I had to choose, I would use a cell phone instead of a landline because a cell phone is cheaper.

.496

-.156

.011

-.260

-.112

.301

-.025

-.259

.403

.099

.123

I do not use landlines because having a cell phone is cheaper

.443

.036

.057

-.018

-.355

-.009

.164

-.476

-.149

.184

-.104

A cell phone is a cheaper alternative for long distance calls than a landline.

.376

.035

-.096

.151

.065

-.231

.538

-.296

-.177

.100

.113

Having a cell phone makes me feel safe while I am walking alone at night.

.441

-.047

-.257

.129

-.023

-.016

.281

.257

.378

-.249

-.145

I use my cell phone to keep my parent from worrying about me.

.410

-.474

-.048

.024

.197

-.046

-.033

-.015

-.018

-.046

-.294

I got my cell phone to use in case of emergency

.277

-.469

-.132

.413

.055

.017

-.213

-.008

-.130

-.226

.220

My parent wanted me to have a cell phone so I can get in touch with her/him if necessary.

.413

-.258

-.117

-.103

.142

-.185

.078

.455

.234

-.121

-.125

I feel lost when I leave my cell phone at home.

.355

-.105

.287

.080

-.123

-.320

-.153

.038

.283

.016

-.032

When I do not have my cell phone with me, I feel disconnected.

.295

.088

.407

-.390

.191

-.317

-.140

-.252

.279

.143

.049

I always leave my cell phone on.

.208

-.011

.024

-.096

.538

-.281

-.143

.058

-.037

.349

.374

I feel upset when I miss a call to my cell phone.

.287

-.082

.300

.299

-.124

-.327

-.213

.023

-.301

-.190

-.093

A cell phone distracts me from being aware of my surroundings.

.040

.007

.176

.453

-.242

.436

-.102

.185

.300

.196

.234

I feel embarrassed by my cell phone ringing at inappropriate times.

.141

.232

.571

.058

-.190

.122

.011

-.045

-.017

-.336

-.153

I am often distracted by my cell phone when driving.

.169

.089

.222

.474

-.049

-.187

.336

-.020

.239

-.137

.392

I am tired of being accessible all the time.

.216

-.102

.232

.157

.110

.116

-.024

.374

-.113

.581

-.137

A cell phone is addictive

.049

-.251

.427

-.441

.181

.290

.357

-.003

-.016

-.122

-.029

I seldom use non-calling functions of my cell phone.

.028

.221

.551

-.115

.236

.206

.263

.314

-.171

-.142

.007

Table 5: Rotated factor pattern and variable communalities (C) for the female respondents

Component

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

A cell phone allows me to use my time efficiently

.775

-.031

.120

-.077

-.003

.038

.082

-.117

.186

.024

.163

I use my cell phone to make use of time that otherwise would be wasted

.731

.115

-.059

.103

.114

-.046

.076

.134

-.187

-.009

-.094

we need a cell phone to be successful in the world today

.486

.127

.149

.291

.239

.095

-.116

.081

-.012

.321

-.252

A cell phone allows me to do two things at once.

.210

-.042

.036

.811

-.007

-.072

.080

-.011

-.012

-.077

.009

Cell phone saves my time in contacting people.

-.186

.168

.126

.643

-.086

.208

-.029

.177

-.103

.172

.047

Those people who do not have a cell phone are out of touch with modern times.

.067

-.006

-.023

.022

.324

-.085

.313

.373

-.132

-.156

.302

The brand of a cell phone is important to me.

.139

.243

.072

.029

.631

-.066

-.024

-.321

-.131

-.006

-.024

I often use my cell phone to schedule/reschedule an appointment at the last minute.

.109

-.106

.093

-.054

.704

.128

-.039

.173

.163

.071

.099

It is financially beneficial to use a cell phone as opposed to a landline.

.215

.164

.465

.201

.007

.033

-.276

.002

-.040

-.010

.398

A cell phone is more affordable than a landline phone service.

.178

.247

.550

.183

-.319

-.092

.046

.018

-.074

-.133

.083

If I had to choose, I would use a cell phone instead of a landline because a cell phone is cheaper.

-.045

.179

.142

.458

.262

-.044

.506

-.288

.099

-.110

.021

I do not use landlines because having a cell phone is cheaper

-.013

-.145

.663

.174

.160

-.079

.267

.103

-.017

-.201

.035

A cell phone is a cheaper alternative for long distance calls than a landline.

-.044

.081

.701

-.122

.193

.035

-.024

.029

.195

.242

-.115

Having a cell phone makes me feel safe while I am walking alone at night.

.147

.721

.142

.002

.103

-.041

-.015

-.077

.210

-.152

-.049

I use my cell phone to keep my parent from worrying about me.

-.231

.443

.080

.061

.342

-.038

.139

.246

-.239

.061

.088

I got my cell phone to use in case of emergency

-.244

.208

-.101

.284

.343

-.253

-.172

.423

.211

.134

-.058

My parent wanted me to have a cell phone so I can get in touch with her/him if necessary.

.021

.747

-.031

.081

-.061

.050

.073

.066

-.049

.146

.092

I feel lost when I leave my cell phone at home.

.024

.249

.032

.030

-.116

-.058

.468

.325

.183

-.004

.100

When I do not have my cell phone with me, I feel disconnected.

.117

-.021

.062

.009

-.065

.173

.773

.036

-.070

.268

-.067

I always leave my cell phone on.

.088

-.002

-.043

.024

.063

-.019

.206

.001

.019

.795

.139

I feel upset when I miss a call to my cell phone.

.044

.029

.103

.028

-.011

.023

.048

.742

.050

-.011

.033

A cell phone distracts me from being aware of my surroundings.

-.010

-.070

-.223

.184

.108

-.090

-.012

-.081

.587

-.257

.434

I feel embarrassed by my cell phone ringing at inappropriate times.

.182

-.105

.004

.026

.017

.462

.193

.319

.160

-.408

-.054

I am often distracted by my cell phone when driving.

-.002

.100

.171

-.131

.002

.076

.047

.145

.765

.081

-.116

I am tired of being accessible all the time.

-.033

.069

.037

-.018

.050

.108

.023

.075

-.011

.170

.783

A cell phone is addictive

-.326

.083

.020

.135

.099

.690

.171

-.190

-.133

-.020

-.048

I seldom use non-calling functions of my cell phone.

.141

-.024

-.077

-.043

-.016

.787

-.068

.045

.086

.039

.136

Table 6: The factors for the male and female respondents and Cronbach alphas

No

Male

Alpha

Fmale

Alpha

1

Cost efficiency

0.857

Necessity in modern times

0.859

2

Safety/ security

0.792

Safety/security

0.841

3

Dependency

0.813

Cost efficiency

0.816

4

Necessity in modern times

0.774

Dependency

0.815

5

Negatives

0.661

Functionality

0.432

6

Functionality

0.498

Negatives

0.405

Table 7: The distinct user clusters on the basis of the behavioral variables in the male population

Table VIII T distinct u clusters on the basis of the behavioral variables in the male population

Name of the

cluster

Sophisticated users

Non-sophisticated users

Non-appreciative users

Appreciative users

Behaviors

1. Do care about the costs

2. Care a great deal about the

functionality of the cell phone

3. Do not care about the

negatives

1. Not efficiency oriented

2. Do not care about the

functionality

3. Do not care about the

negatives

1. Rather use landline

phones

2. No security/safety

conscious

3. Do not care about the

negatives

1. Cost efficiency

oriented

2. Do depend on the

cell phone

3. Safety/security

conscious

4. Brand conscious

No%

55

31.07%

45

25.42%

44

24.86

33

18.65%

Table 8: The distinct user clusters on the basis of the behavioral variables in the female population

Name of the

cluster

Practical users

Middle of the road users

Appreciative users

Safety concerned users

Non-sophisticated users

Cost efficiency oriented

users

Behaviors

1. Want to be in touch with

family members

2. Not safety/security

concerned

3. Do not care about the

costs that much

1. Cost efficiency oriented

2. Want to be successful

3. Want to be in touch with

family members

1. Rather use landline

phones

2. No security/safety

conscious

3. Do not care about the

negatives

1. Cost efficiency

oriented

2. Do depend on the

cell phone

3. Safety/security

conscious

4. Brand conscious

No%

55

31.07%

45

25.42%

44

24.86

33

18.65%

4.2 Results/discussion:

The means and standard deviations the averages of the variables were calculated. Through which we saw from the average that ??????cost efficiency??????, ??????functionality??????, ??????necessity in modern times?????? were came out to be major variables and ??????safety/security??????. As can be seen in the Table there were no differences regarding the ??????necessity in modern times??????, ??????cost efficiency??????, and ??????dependency?????? behaviors. (see table 4 and 5) On the foundation of the results it is clear, that the female are more ??????safety and security?????? aware, more worried about the ??????negatives??????, and finally less concerned about the ??????functionality?????? of the cell phone. These results are generally consistent with previous research findings, which indicate that young males are more interested in the technology features of their cell phones.

Moving on to next objective of this study, which was to investigate whether distinct user groups exist among the genders? Distance graph and clustering history were used in order to determine the appropriate number of clusters. On the basis of the above it is apparent that the user clusters in both genders are rather unique (see table 6). Amazingly the number of different clusters was larger in the female. Bother gender groups include one same cluster meaning that the users in this group appreciate the brand and the wide functionality provided by the cell phone. In adding up both gender groups also include the cluster ??????non-sophisticated users?????? indicating that they do not care too much about the functionality provided by the cell phone. Other clusters are unique for the both genders.

Chapter 5.

Conclusions and Recommendations:

The main point of this research was to find out cell phone behavioral factors and variables among youth in Peshawar using different studies and research papers. In manner to the Aoki and Downs study the gender differences were also compared. The most important behavioral factors that came out from the study were ??????cost efficiency??????, ??????functionality??????, ??????necessity in modern times??????, and ??????safety/security??????. Significant difference were appeared regarding female respondents that they are concerned about ??????safety and security??????, more concerned about the ??????negatives??????, and almost too null care about the technology and performance of cell phone. Moving towards next objective the study explained cell phone behavior variables that were analyzed which are briefly discussed above in data analysis chapter. My results were much similar to other research papers which concludes that these specific gender behavior of cellphone usage are similar in youth of other countries. However the major limitation to this study can be that these behaviors that came out of my study of cell phone usage is limit to youth only or even people of age between 24 and above have the same response. On this issue I recommend that mobile phone companies should research on this topic so that they can know what actually people are looking when they are buying a cell phone.Moreover, other issue is that mobile communication technology is growing with rapid pace. The results of this research give a reasonably consistent factorial structure and therefore the results of this study provide at least to a degree a reality validation that how youth of Peshawar is using cell phone and it what manner.