The Recent Riots In England Health And Social Care Essay

Introduction

Davis (1997) explores cultural diversity and defines it as cultural competence. It is a merger and exchange of knowledge held by people and groups into specific standards such as policies, practices and attitudes which can be used in right cultural settings. Adams (1995) describes that cultural competence relates to groups or people with selected cultural characteristics such as history, values, belief systems or behaviours of members of another ethnic group.

In other words, cultural competence sets out policies to enable a system of working effectively in cross-cultural situations; it has a diversity of people come from different backgrounds with similar opportunities to develop good relations in the workplace, in schools and within the neighbourhood. For example, ACNA (African Caribbean National Artistic Centre) Nottingham is a Caribbean Centre based in St Ann’s (Nottingham City, 2013). ACNA is a centre where people from the Caribbean of all ages come and meet, a place where the older people would sit and talk about their stories from the Caribbean.

Rosenau (1992) believes that people use in folk stories, myths or legends, known as mini-narratives, to promote a social bond among individuals in their everyday lives. This centre also delivers activities to promote social and cultural identity. There are computer classes and creative writing clubs weekly. The members speak in different languages; some have a dialect formed from broken French, an influence from Dominica and St Lucia. Creole is an important part of most shared identity and culture. However, older people may speak it with a stronger accent. In other parts of the Caribbean such as Jamaica, Patois is spoken.

Nottingham it is known as the world-class city, with over 1000 years of behind it. Over 630,000 people live across the conurbation, with over 280,000 living in the City of Nottingham itself. I city of learning in science, but soon leaving university drawing students from around the world who contribute to the city's youthfulness, creativity and diversity. Nottingham city is one of the UK's most important cities for business and enterprise, learning and science, sport and culture. It is a city sports, and established sports clubs, and motivate athletes of the future drawn to Nottingham's facilities to help realize their dreams.The city has one of the UK's largest and most successful retail centres, public transport, parks and green spaces and cultural opportunities. (Nottingham City, 2013). It is one of the strongest cities in terms of wealth creating per person reflecting on its role and international centre in business and also the East Midlands capital city. Even in these economic times, the city continues to grow and outperform many other UK cities. It has international businesses, including Boots, Capital One and Paul Smith (Nottingham City, 2013).

The two main universities have over 60,000 students enrolled between them. In Nottingham city, there are 20 wards, which are represented by Nottingham Councillors (Appendix.1).

Aspley and Bilborough Wards

Living in the the Bilborough Ward in Nottingham the following areas covers are Denewood triangle, including the Moor Green Estate, Chilwell Dam Farm, the Bilborough Estate, and the Beechdale Estate(nottinghamcity,2013). The Area Committee is an open meeting, have regular surgeries where the councillors would meet with the residents and discuss their views and concerns. For Aspley and strelley ward, the local councilors meet up every two months, which are held in the market square, discuss how would they improve the area. Community Cohesion

Henderson (2000) describes that community development can be viewed under several auspices, including health regeneration and crime reduction, where there is a shared belief that community participation and citizen involvement are necessary for social improvement. Etzioni (1993) looks at community involvement around family social responsibility underpinning this approach, especially in relation to volunteering, parenting and active citizenship expressed through collective self-help and voluntary forms of association. Community Cohesion works in Nottingham is about how people get along together, and it lies in the heart of safe and strong communities. Communication is important, and it helps identify the social issues that lead to fragmented neighbourhoods and increase in antisocial behaviour. Nottingham wants to encourage people to stay and value being part of the city. Nottingham has developed a strategy aimed to develop a citywide community, cohesion strategy. It identifies ways to help increase cohesion across the city and is looking up into four main aims of the community cohesion strategy as it aims to reduce inequalities, discrimination and levels of deprivation, increase community engagement, increase and promote interaction between people, to increase safety and respect for individuals and communities.

The radical community work emphasizes people's civil rights and strives for social justice seeking to develop a political conscience and powerful forms of collective organising to affect social change through redistribution of power. For example, communities and organisations may involve the development of anti-oppressive strategies by helping people to challenge the roots of their disadvantage and demand better or fairer treatment. The Local Government Association (2002) defines community cohesion as a sense of belonging for all communities (local. Gov, 2012).

In 2006, the local government White Paper Strong and prosperous community was formed it was an opportunity for the community development to take the lead in creating communities for future, Led with (1997) looks at the radical version of community development through causes of poverty and disadvantages to be found in the economic system, reflection of historical patterns of exploitation embedded in social and political institutions. In community development locates a grassroots practice and this connects with a vision to provide a framework which evaluates every stage of the community development process.

In 2007, One Nottingham community cohesion strategy and action plan was consulting with a wide range of organization include issues that matter for Nottingham. This strategy aims to bring organization and voluntary sectors to join and promote community cohesion through a co-ordinated partnership approach. Community cohesion is about bringing people together as including other issues such as is ethnicity and faith.

One Nottingham looks at how to improve cohesion is to focus on four main strategic aims to work together as a community. Firstly is to reduce inequalities, which means that some groups of people have poorer life opportunities and outcomes because of their different backgrounds or where they live. Addressing inequality and discrimination in terms of education, housing or health is to improve community relations. Secondly, to increase community engagements, sense of belonging and pride is to give local people a voice and be able to influence decision making about their neighbourhood. To develop a representative or strong local leadership helps to ensure that everyone's voice heard and different opinions are taken into account. For example, community action group helps to celebrate people to get together and improve pride and sense of belonging. To increase and promote interaction between people helps communities to bring together as a group from different parts of the city, encourage honest discussions and doing activities together such as sports or are based events can break down the barriers and improve community cohesion.

Nottingham does not show signs of community instability as has occurred in some towns and cities in northern England back in 2001, but there are some changes to address including the disaffection of some young people in the estates, education, leisure and tourism, faith communities and the voluntary and community sector. The pattern of unemployment by ethnic group in Nottingham largely follows the same pattern as nationally but with ethnic groups having a higher unemployment rate than their national counterparts. (nottinghaminsight.org, 2012). The exception to this is the low rate amongst people from Chinese or other ethnic groups although this may be explained by the high proportion of university students in this group ( Appendix .2)

The Race Relations Amendment Act (2000) has become even more important for schools to have a clear understanding of the implications of Race Equality in the 21st century, and to have effective structures in place to implement it is therefore important in all settings, whether they be multi-ethnic, multi-faith inner city schools or all white schools in a rural situation. Racist acts (such as handing out racist literature, racist comments and attitudes etc.) can happen in schools, and no pupils from minority ethnic backgrounds can have long term implications for the wider community. (Legislation, 2000) Addressing the complex needs of black and minority ethnic (BME) Communities Employment trends in Nottingham the UK’s most disadvantaged communities demonstrate high unemployment and low qualification achievement attainments.

Equality objectives set out in the Black and Minority ethnic (BME) groups and disable citizen's release special education needs, carer support, education and training. Data shows that there has been an increase in the percentage of respondents using services are treating people fairly.

Nottingham City Council aims to help drive forward and improve performance on equality used a program called Fair and just Nottingham which is performance report that is the program. There is an increasing percentage of 16-18 year old Nottingham City Residents from deprived wards, Black and Minority ethnic (BME) groups , disabled people to be fully accessible for by 2013 (Nottingham city , 2012). The percentage of respondents stating public services treat people fairly continues to increase. There is an increase in satisfaction with information being easy to understand for BME and disabled citizens.

The recent riots in England have sparked a vigorous debate about the causes. This has shown an impact on people, who feel more threatened and prejudiced. In society, economic inequality and economic grievances have a role. Government statistics confirmed that, in reality, the age distribution of rioters was more complex than initial media reporting suggested. Around 15,000 people who stole from businesses and caused damage to property lost their lives, and many people lost their businesses and homes. The disturbances started following the fatal shooting by police of Mark Duggan in Tottenham, London. It was on 10th August 2012, and last year, disorder spread to 66 different areas across England. In fact, there were examples of known troublemakers not getting involved in the riots. The media seemingly neglected to report any successful youth projects that had actively stopped people getting involved, either spontaneously during early August, 2012 or as a result of sustained preventative work (Guardian, 2011). The Nottingham Stands Together strategy aims to eliminate gun and drug related crime in the city born out of the tragic death of a young girl, Danielle Beccan, in 2004. The strategy has been a partnership approach led by the Nottingham City Council and elected members from Nottingham Police and the voluntary sector. Much of the work focuses on prevention stopping young people from getting involved in a gun and drug related crimes in the first place. Other aspects have been a gun amnesty and targeting of suspected offenders. There has been a significant decrease in gun-related crimes, so much so that there has been national interest in the work in Nottingham (nottinghamcity, 2007).

Empowerment also builds a sense of ownership and community pride, which means that areas are more cared for by residents who have a greater stake (Nottingham insight, 2013) .The government says that community empowerment in its wider sense is at the core of tackling deprivation and building aspiration. By supporting residents to control their environment and services, we support them to grow in confidence and build skills that will transfer to other areas of their lives, including employability.

The New Art Exchange in Hyson Green, opened in 2008 is a contemporary art gallery committed to stimulating new perspectives on the value of diversity within art and society.It is the UK's only gallery outside London dedicated to Black and Asian artists. Housing public galleries, workshop space, rehearsal rooms and offices, as well as a cafe and shop, the Centre open for multicultural arts. Bringing people together through the arts is a way of promoting learning and understanding about other cultures. The New Art Exchange plays a major role in bringing people together and promoting understanding. The project has been backed by funding from Arts Council England, Nottingham City Council, The Neighbourhood Development Company, the East Midlands Development Agency, the Greater Nottinghamshire Partnership and the European Regional Development Fund. It is expected that the New Art Exchange will form a keystone in the regeneration of the area (the newartexchange, 2012)

City Arts has created which is a registered charity, working creatively and collaboratively with communities and particularly target resources towards vulnerable groups base in Nottingham; City Arts create opportunities to bring people together and stimulate change within communities. This group concentrates on working with communities and groups focused in the areas of high quality outdoor arts production, and young people have worked with the artists and communities and research-based arts and health work (cityarts, 2013)

Global social policy today which gathered support in the 1990s was that markets need states and states need market, that unless capitalism is regulated and supported by public policy it will not survive. Shaw, 1994, argues that the development of global society requires a new politics of global responsibility. The human development report 1999 warns that globalisation offers great opportunities for human advances but only with stronger governance. Deacon, (1995) argues that there is now a global social policy made all of transnational redistribution and global provisions.

The impact of globalisation on communities of people in poverty in the UK is increasing, it has an impact on communities and poverty in the UK because of the many connections with all parts of the world the relationship between economic and social trends and our place in the global are common in economically. The reason for this is that boundaries have now become more fluid, the people with money information with that stuck in greater scale between states than ever before. There are more connections with other parts of the world at the community and national level globalization and international policy in particular of a significant change in the environment where in the UK antipoverty policy is formed. The UK therefore is closely integrated with other parts the world and many people's economic well-being are being tied to the global economy. There are people in society who are coping with higher living costs and economical downturn but at a price. This is causing them stress and more help from friends and families to keep up the household. The downturn means new work patterns as well as job losses for example those who kept their jobs during the recession are now travelling further for work, other reasons they feel less secure about work and incomes also prefer working more flexible hours. There are those who are on low incomes can feel the effects of global, commodity price since the last two years. There are some who are adapted to higher food and fuel prices without harming their welfare yet they are sold meant spending more on shopping and cooking are less restrict travelling and heating. Family and friends in local communities provide support to maintain social cohesion. Informal credit sources are helped for people and small businesses. Access to support there is people were singled out tax credits as vital protection for those on low paid work.

People living in poverty in the areas are connected to multi global connections and are aware of the recession global origins. The clash between globalization and poverty in the UK means to live with property within the global economy. The global economic crisis since 2007 and 2008 food and fuel prices rise and 2009 financial crisis resulting recession on one people who are on low incomes The effects of global recession in everyday life have experienced a downturn in local businesses and employees are affected in the area. Job losses not only changes to work patterns it changes people travelling further and feeling less secure in finance the global economy has other hidden effects on poverty ( Hossain et al. 2011).

In conclusion a practitioner should view cultural diversity in the contents of community empowerment. Having a clear understanding of policies to enable to work with people from different backgrounds develop a good relationship in the workplace or the community. Supporting people to build confidence to move on building skills that will transfer to other areas of their lives. Working in a radical community work environment as helping young people to challenge and to better themselves emphasizes people's civil rights and strives for social justice seeking to develop to affect social change through redistribution of power. The clash between globalization and poverty in the UK means to live with property within the global economy .People living in poverty in the areas are connected to multi global connections and are aware of the recession global origins. Looking at radical version of community it is all about the grass roots practice a connection with the vision, a connection with a voice to provide a framework for community development process. Identifying community cohesion helps me to identify social issues when working with young people lead them into antisocial behaviour is prevented by using a strategy to reduce inequalities, discrimination and increase community engagement to respect individuals and communities.

References

Adams. and Hess, M (2006)New research instruments for government: measuring community engagement in c, duke , L

Davis, K. (1997). Exploring the intersection between cultural competency and managed behavioural health care policy: Implications for state and county mental health agencies. Alexandria, VA: National Technical

Diane l Adams (Ed) (1995) health issues for women of color: a cultural diversity perceptive, thousand oaks:sage publications.

Henderson, P and Thomas , D (2000) Skills in neighbourhood work

Hossain , N, (2011)THE IMPACT OF THE GLOBAL ECONOMIC DOWNTURN ON COMMUNITIES AND POVERTY IN THE UK

LEDWITH, M. (2011) 2nd edn. Community Development - A Critical Approach. Bristol:

Led with, Margaret (2007) 'Reclaiming the radical agenda: a critical approach to community development', Concept Vol.17, No.2, 2007, pp8-12. Reproduced in the encyclopedia of informal education. [www.infed.org/community/critical_community_development.htm].

. Shaw, M (2004) community work: policy. Politics and practice, Hull: Universities of Hull and Edinburgh

Roseau, Pauline Marie (1992) post –modernism and the social sciences: insights, inroads and intrusions, Princeton, Princeton University press City Arts

Etzioni, A (1993) The Spirit of Community: Rights, Responsibilities, and the Communitarian Agenda

Journal

Community Dev J (1998) 33 (1): 2-17. doi: 10.1093/cdj/33.1.2

Web site

Art Exchange,

http://thenewartexchange.org.uk/ accessed by 25/04/13

Assistance Centre for State Mental Health Planning

Cultural competency kit, good practice guide in ethnic minority mental healthcare http://wlmht,nhs/docs/general/cctk.pdf

My Nottingham

City Council www.nottinghamcity.gov.uk/index accessed

http://www.nottinghamcity.gov.uk/index.aspx?articleid=9902#

City arts

http://www.city-arts.org.uk/accessed by 24/04/13.

Insight

http://www.nottinghaminsight.org.uk/ accessed by 24/04/13

Joseph Rowntree research

http://www.jrf.org.uk/publications/impact-global-economic-downturn-communities-and-poverty-uk accessed by 240413

Appendix 1: Council Wards and Ward Map: Nottingham

Appendix 2: Unemployment in Nottingham Quarterly Ethnicity Note

http://gossweb.nottinghamcity.gov.uk/wardmap/NewMap.jpg

Appendix : council Wards Maps

April 2013NCC6_72

Unemployment in Nottingham Quarterly Ethnicity Note

Policy and Research Team, Development Department

Contact: Geoff Oxendale telephone: (0115) 876 3978

email: geoff.oxendale@nottinghamcity.gov.uk

This report examines unemployment levels amongst different ethnic groups in Nottingham City using data from the Office for National Statistics. Different levels of unemployment amongst Nottingham’s ethnic groups are also compared to the England average. The data is limited by the significant number of people (8.5%) whose ethnic group is not recorded, but this limitation is taken into account by the analysis where possible. The change in unemployment over the last year is also assessed to identify how different groups are affected by unemployment. The unemployment by ethnic group data lags a month behind the unemployment data. For the latest figures, see our monthly unemployment bulletin at

http://www.nottinghaminsight.org.uk/f/85867/Library/Social-Issues/Economic-Deprivation/Unemployment-Update/

Rates are calculated as a proportion of the population aged 16-64 from the 2011 Census. Rates for ethnic groups use the proportion of working age people from the 2009 Mid year estimates by ethnic group which is then applied to the 2011 Census figures and controlled to the Census population aged 16-64. Rates are not comparable to the previous reports due to the changes in population data. Rates in the monthly unemployment updates use the 2010 mid year estimates for all people aged 16-64.

Key Points

6.7% of the population were claiming Job Seekers Allowance in February 2013. This rate ranged from 3.3% of the City’s Asian or Asian British population to 9.7% of the Black or Black British population.

All ethnic groups in Nottingham had unemployment rates higher than the national average for the group except in the Chinese or Other Ethnicity group.

The largest difference between the local and national rate was in the White ethnic group.

Male unemployment has fallen while female unemployment increased in the last year. Most of the difference occurred since changes to Income Support for Lone Parents in May which have disproportionately affected women. Only the Asian or Asian British ethnic group saw decreases in both male and female unemployment.

Unemployment amongst young people fell in the last year and for all ethnic groups.

There have been large increases in the number of claimants whose ethnicity is not given or unknown.

Long term unemployment (claiming for more than 6 months) has stabilised in all ethnic groups in the last year although the proportion of people claiming for more than a year has continued to increase in all ethnic groups.

Nottingham City Unemployment by Ethnic Group

In February 2013, unemployment (measured using Jobseekers Allowance claimants) in Nottingham stood at 14,365, a rate of 6.7% compared to a national rate of 3.7%. Table 1 shows that unemployment varies between different groups from 3.3% of working age people in the Asian or Asian British group to 9.7% of working age people in the Black or Black British group. The differences in unemployment rates are less marked than in previous reports due to improvements in population figures following the 2011 Census.

Table 1: Unemployment by ethnic group, February 2013.

 

Nottingham

England

Ethnic Group

Number

Rate %

Rate %

All People

14,365

6.7

3.8

White

9,610

6.3

3.4

Mixed

725

6.4

4.4

Asian or Asian British

825

3.3

2.9

Black or Black British

1,625

9.7

7.3

Chinese or Other Ethnic Group

360

3.9

5.3

Prefer not to say/ unknown

1,215

Source: Claimant Count by ethnic group, ONS 2010, (from NOMIS)

Rates calculated using 2011 Census ethnicity figures based on the age structure of 2009 ONS mid year estimates by ethnic group (experimental statistics) and controlled to the 2011 Census population aged 16-64 and are unofficial

The pattern of unemployment by ethnic group in Nottingham largely follows the same pattern as nationally but with each ethnic group having a higher unemployment rate than their national counterparts. The exception to this is the low rate amongst people from Chinese or other ethnic groups although this may be explained by the high proportion of university students in this group.

Change over time

Overall, the number of claimants in Nottingham fell by 1.9% in the last year compared to a 4.9% decrease nationally. Further detail on the overall difference between local and national performance can be found in the Monthly Unemployment updates,

http://www.nottinghaminsight.org.uk/f/85867/Library/Social-Issues/Economic-Deprivation/Unemployment-Update/

Table 2: Annual change in unemployment February 2012 to February 2013

 

Nottingham

England

Ethnic Group

Change

%

%

All People

-285

-1.9

-4.9

White

-225

-2.3

-5.1

Mixed

-10

-1.4

-4.5

Asian or Asian British

-75

-8.4

-6.4

Black or Black British

-45

-2.7

-4.5

Chinese or Other Ethnic Group

-40

-10.0

2.2

Prefer not to say/ unknown

110

10.0

-3.9

Source: Claimant Count by ethnic group, ONS 2010, (from NOMIS)

Table 2 appears to show that all ethnic groups saw a decrease in unemployment in the last year although the true picture is obscured by a 10% increase in the number of people whose ethnicity is not known. The largest decreases in unemployment in Nottingham were in the Chinese or Other Ethnic Group and Asian and Asian British groups and these groups both saw larger declines than the national average for the same ethnic group.

Table 3 shows how the pattern of unemployment has changed in the last year. Overall it shows that the largest increase in unemployment for all groups in the City was in the last three months, although this was probably largely due to temporary Christmas jobs coming to an end. Since August 2012, Nottingham has seen an identical increase in unemployment to the national figure of 3.0%. However, only the White group has seen an increase in unemployment in this period and is the only group to see a worse change than the same ethnic group nationally.

The most notable change has been the fall in unemployment amongst people in the Mixed and Chinese and Other Ethnic groups in the last 6 months compared to a national rise in unemployment for these groups.

Table 3: Three, six and twelve month change in unemployment February 2012 to February 2013

 

% change in Nottingham

% change in England

Ethnic Group

Annual

6 months

3 months

Annual

6 months

3 months

All People

-1.9

3.0

5.6

-4.9

3.0

4.6

White

-2.3

5.0

6.7

-5.1

4.2

5.7

Mixed

-1.4

-2.7

2.1

-4.5

0.5

2.8

Asian or Asian British

-8.4

-7.9

3.1

-6.4

-5.6

-0.9

Black or Black British

-2.7

-1.2

3.2

-4.5

-0.5

-0.2

Chinese or Other Ethnic Group

-10.0

-4.0

0.0

2.2

4.7

2.7

Prefer not to say/ unknown

10.0

7.0

5.7

-3.9

3.1

5.5

Source: Claimant Count by ethnic group, ONS 2010, (from NOMIS)

Gender and age

Between February 2012 and February 2013, male unemployment fell by 5.7% while female unemployment increased by 5.5%. As in previous years this is strongly linked to changes in Income Support for Lone Parents which have caused large numbers of, mostly female, claimants to transfer to JSA.

Male unemployment fell in every ethnic group in the last year with the largest decrease being in the Chinese or Other Ethnic Group category. The only group to see a fall in female unemployment was the Asian or Asian British ethnic group. For both men and women the number of claimants whose ethnic group is not known or not given increased.

Unemployment amongst the under 25s fell by 12.6% in the last year with falls in all ethnic groups. The largest fall in unemployment was in the Asian or Asian British group which fell by 23.8% although all groups saw a fall of more than 10%. The number of people in the ‘prefer not to say/ unknown ethnicity’ group has however risen.

Duration of unemployment

Table 4 shows the number and percentage of people who have been out of work for more than 6 months. The proportion of long term unemployed people has fallen in the last six months to less than 50% and there has also been a small fall in the number of long term claimants suggesting that after large increases in long term unemployment, the figures are starting to stabilise. Female long term unemployment has increased and in every ethnic group except the Asian or Asian British group. This is likely again to be a result of changes to incapacity benefit. The largest increases in long term unemployment were amongst women in the Chinese or Other Ethnic Group and the Black or Black British group.

Table 4: Long term unemployment by ethnic group, February 2013

Number Long term unemployed

% annual change

Ethnic Group

Male

Female

Total

Male

Female

Total

All People

4,845

2,180

7,025

-2.5

5.1

-0.3

White

3,240

1,480

4,715

-1.7

3.9

-0.1

Mixed

240

105

340

-5.9

5.0

-4.2

Asian or Asian British

225

130

360

-8.2

-10.3

-6.5

Black or Black British

585

270

855

-5.6

17.4

0.6

Chinese or Other Ethnic Group

145

55

200

-3.3

37.5

5.3

Prefer not to say/ unknown

410

140

555

1.2

3.7

2.8

Source: Claimant Count by ethnic group, ONS 2010, (from NOMIS)

Much of the increase in long term unemployment in recent years can be attributed to changes in the welfare system which have caused people to transfer to JSA from other benefits, notably Incapacity Benefit or Income Support for Lone Parents. Many of these people are likely to be further from the workforce than someone who is newly unemployed as they are more likely to have a longer break in their employment history and, in the case of lone parents, to still have childcare responsibilities. Despite the fact that the numbers unemployed for more than 6 months seem to have stabilised, the number of people unemployed for more than 12 months has continued to rise rapidly. The number of men and women in every ethnic group who have been claiming JSA for more than a year has increased in the last year and these claimants make up nearly one third of the total. This suggests that a large proportion of JSA claimants are likely to remain claimants for a long period of time and will need considerable amounts of help to rejoin the workforce.