The Tobacco Prevention Health And Social Care Essay
American Sentinel University
Smoking is the number one cause of preventable death in the Unites States and around eighty eight Floridians die due to tobacco related illnesses every day. Smoking harms nearly every organ of the body especially lungs and heart. It also affects not just smokers, but the people around them. Smoking is the main cause of lung cancer and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD). Smoking in pregnancy has an increased risk of low birth weight babies, preterm deliveries, and sudden infant death syndrome. According to American Lung Association the economic impact of the smoking is around $97.2 billion annually in health care. So cessation of smoking is a very important step in achieving optimum health.
This paper will cover the smoking related health conditions of the Broward county population. Broward County is located in the state of Florida and it is one of three counties in South Florida. Broward County was created in 1915. It was named for Napoleon Bonaparte Broward, Governor of Florida from 1905 to 1909. The population of the county is 1,623,018 and it is the second most populated county in the state. The half of the population is White Non-Hispanics and the rest are Blacks, African-Americans, Indians and Hispanics. In the county the population is spread out with 23.6% under the age of 18, 7.2% from 18 to 24, 31.4% from 25 to 44, 21.7% from 45 to 64, and 16.1% who are 65 years of age or older. The median age of the population is 38 years. There are 93.3 males for every 100 females. The median income for a household in the county is 41,691, and the median income for a family is 50,531. About 8.7% of families and 11.5% of the population are below the poverty line ("Demographics," 2012, p. 2).
Health Promotion Topic
Promoting good health and helping people to learn about the health risks of smoking is the goal of the Broward County health department. Quit smoking is the most important step a smoker can take to improve the length and quality of the life. As soon as the smoker quit smoking, the human body begins to repair the damage caused by smoking. It is best to quit as early in life, but even someone who quit later in life will also improve the health. The majority of today’s daily smokers began smoking before they were 18 years old. But youth smoking can be prevented with the combined efforts of families, schools, communities, and states. Parents can set a positive example for their children by not smoking themselves and keeping their homes smoke free. Schools can provide tobacco prevention programs to educate students about the dangers of smoking. States can pass legislation to increase taxes on tobacco products, pass and implement comprehensive smoke free indoor air laws. Of course, states should limit minors’ access to tobacco products ("Preventing smoking- American Lung Association," 2013, p. 1).
Comparison and Contrast with Population in the Different County
The Broward County Health Department Tobacco Control Program is working to reduce tobacco use and encouraging youth to stay tobacco free by increasing awareness about the dangers of secondhand smoke. The primary goals of the program are prevent initiation of tobacco use, eliminate exposure to secondhand smoke, and promote cessation from tobacco use and increase the use of cessation services. In Broward County, 18.1% of adults currently smoke and 12.1% of non smoking adults are exposed to secondhand smoke. These rates are in the low to mid range for Florida counties. The number of smokers is high because of the large population. The Broward County Health Department collaborated with the American Lung Association to conduct the Freedom from Smoking Program in 2008. This seven week program was an evidenced-based and participants were recruited primarily through email. The Area Health Education Center (AHEC) conducted classes at Nova Southeastern University, which provided classroom space and funding to train Freedom from Smoking facilitators. The Community Health Department held meetings with three local universities and colleges, Florida Atlantic University (FAU), Nova Southeastern University, and Broward College to discuss the creation of breathe easy smoke free zones on their campuses in 2008. FAU has created breathe easy zone and the Community Health Department (CHD) tobacco prevention specialist is included in the university’s wellness committee (Ros, 2008, p. 17).
In Palm Beach County, the smoking rate is 17.5% and the secondhand smoke exposure rate is 9.1%. These rates are in the low to mid range for Florida counties. However, the number of smokers is high because of the large population like other south Florida counties. The Palm Beach County is geographically large and contains both urban and rural areas. There are large numbers of non English speaking residents. The Palm Beach County Health Department (CHD) partnered with the Prevention Center in the Department of Safe Schools, School District of Palm Beach County to offer the FACE IT (Families Acting Collaboratively to Educate and Involve Teens) program in 2008. FACE IT is an 8 week program that emphasizes the vital role of parents in supporting the teens to live free from alcohol, tobacco and other drugs. FACE IT provided services to over 125 families of tobacco prevention area. 87% of these families completed the program and the participating students were diverted from 1600 days of out of school suspension. This successful program continues to be offered at a local high school. The CHD is active in cessation programs and secondhand smoke education. An asthma management program for children ages 8-11 was conducted at 20 elementary schools and 410 students participated in 2008. After participating in the program, 78% of the students recognized secondhand smoke as a trigger for asthma attacks and they made efforts to physically remove themselves from smoke. CHD delivered this popular program to an additional 40 elementary schools in 2009. Ten youth facilitators were trained in six high schools to deliver "Not on Tobacco" program to volunteer student smokers. In 2009 an additional five new schools were offered this program. During the national Kick Butts Day, the CHD supported events throughout Palm Beach County and garnered written no smoking pledges from over 500 youth. Tobacco CHD staff provided clients with Quit Packets to assist them and their families in quitting smoking and 1,000 clients were screened for smoking throughout the year 2008. Health Department staff was trained at seven sites for tobacco intervention and methods for immediate referral of clients to the Quit line by using a fax form (Ros, 2008, p. 17-18).
Comparison and Contrast between the Broward population and India
High prevalence of tobacco consumption is one of the major challenges to health and wellbeing of the citizens in India. About 2700 Indians die every day from tobacco use. A research shows that 5000 youth in India start using tobacco daily. The Global Youth Tobacco Survey in 2009 reveals that nearly 15% of youth currently use tobacco in India. Among 37682 males, 10756 were ever smokers and among 35923 females, 740 were ever smokers. Bidi is the common form of smoking in the rural areas. The mean number of cigarettes smoked per day was 14 and the mean age of starting smoking was 20 years. The factors of smoking were increasing age, low socio-economic status, and rural residents. A substantial proportion of population in India has current smoking habit with higher prevalence among males than females. The quit rates have been low in spite of the various anti tobacco measures. There is significant respiratory morbidity associated with smoking and nearly 14% of ever smokers had some respiratory symptoms ("Tobacco smoking in India," 2013, p. 1).
Public health researchers from India and United States have found that school based smoking prevention programs in India are cost effective. The cost effective smoking prevention program was implemented in 32 schools of Delhi and Chennai during the period 2004-2006 and 14000 students between ages 14-16 years participated. The cost of smoking per life year was nearly 1.8 lakh rupees ($4348). According to Mobilizing Youth for Tobacco Related Initiatives (MYTRI) study current tobacco use decreased by 17% in the intervention group and increased by 68% in the control group over the project duration of two years from 2004 to 2006 ("smoking prevention in India," 2012, p. 1).
Tobacco use is a major preventable cause of premature death and disease worldwide. Quitting smoking is important for health and provides many benefits like circulation begins to improve, blood pressure starts to return to normal, sense of smell and taste return and breathing starts to become easier. Quitting is not easy. Some people try several times before succeeding. There are many ways to quit smoking like manuals, counseling, medicines, and products. It is better to consult a health care provider to find the best way to quitting smoking. Smoking cessation is an important step to achieve optimum health.