The Treatment Options For Osteoporosis Health And Social Care Essay

In osteoporosis bones become so weak and fragile that they are easy to fracture. Osteoporosis-related fractures generally occur in the hip, spine or wrist. Signs and symptoms of osteoporosis include; back pain, curved posture and loss of height. Our bones are in a continuous state of renewal, old bones are broken down and new bones are made. Bone mass increases when body makes new bones faster than it breaks down the old bones. As people age, bone mass is decreased. That’s why, when you get older, the risk of osteoporosis increases. Women are more likely to develop osteoporosis than men due to repeated child birth, lactation and menopause. The decrease in estrogen levels at menopause is a strong risk factor for osteoporosis. Osteoporosis is also associated with low calcium intake, alcohol consumption, smoking and steroids. Most accurate test for the diagnosis of osteoporosis is bone density x-ray. Estrogen, specifically started soon after menopause, can help conserve bone density. Risk of osteoporosis can be prevented by daily calcium intake and regular exercise.

Link to website

http://orthoinfo.aaos.org/topic.cfm?topic=a00232

What is neck pain and what are its causes and risk factors?

Neck pain is a common medical condition and is also called cervical pain. Neck pain is usually associated with dull aching to severe burning pain. At times the neck pain is worsened with the movement of neck. Neck pain can be associated with a number of disorders such as tuberculosis of neck, trapped nerve, neck strain, infection of the spine in the neck, and neck injury. Neck pain can also come from infections, such as viral infection of throat and meningitis. Risk factors for neck pain comprise injury from sports, accidents, horse riding, etc. neck pain can be prevented by neck strengthening exercises and neck bracing.

Link to website

http://www.netdoctor.co.uk/diseases/facts/neckpains.htm

What are symptoms of osteoporosis?

Osteoporosis early in the course of disease may cause no symptoms. Later, it can cause dull pain in the bones, predominantly low back pain or neck pain. With the progression of disease, the patient feels sharp pain which may be sudden in onset. The pain may not spread to other areas and it may be made worse by movement. The pain may be associated with tenderness, and usually begins to decrease in one week. Pain may remain more than three months. Patients having osteoporosis may not even remember a fall or a blow that might have cause a broken bone. Spinal fractures, due to compression, may result in loss of height and a curved posture. Fractures at other sites, such as the hip or arm, generally result from a fall.

Link to website

http://www.emedicinehealth.com/osteoporosis/page3_em.htm#osteoporosis_symptoms

What are the treatment options for osteoporosis?

Osteoporosis treatments include calcium, vitamin D, weight-bearing exercise, prevention of falls, and medicines. Osteoporosis treatments are of several forms. There are few that can be started during childhood and others include medications to treat osteoporosis. Weight-bearing exercise is an option for osteoporosis patients, and it may even help your bones. Consult your doctor before starting a new fitness plan. Most widely prescribed osteoporosis medicines are bisphosphonates. Estrogen replacement therapy, specifically started soon after menopause, may be helpful for the prevention and treatment of osteoporosis in postmenopausal women.

Link to website

http://www.webmd.com/osteoporosis/guide/osteoporosis_treatment_care

What is Arthritis?

The word arthritis is derived from the Greek word arthron meaning "joint" and itis which is the Latin word, meaning "inflammation". Arthritis is inflammation of the joints. Arthritis affects the musculoskeletal system, specially the joints. It is the main reason of disability amongst people over fifty-five years of age. The key symptoms of arthritis are joint pain and rigidity, which usually worsen with age. Arthritis is not a single disorder; it covers more than 100 medical conditions. Most common form of arthritis is Osteoarthritis and it usually affects elderly patients. Some other forms of arthritis can affect young people. The second most common type of arthritis is rheumatoid arthritis which is an autoimmune condition. Other types of arthritis can be caused by infections, uric acid crystals or even an underlying disease, for example, psoriasis or lupus. Treatments differ depending on the type of arthritis. The main objectives of arthritis treatments are to reduce the symptoms and to improve the quality of life.

Link to website

http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/7621.php

What are different types and causes of arthritis?

If someone has arthritis, there is something wrong with the joints. What is wrong depends on the type of arthritis. It could be the damaged cartilage, a lack of fluid, infection, autoimmunity (body attacking itself), or combination of many factors. There are more than 100 types of arthritis. Osteoarthritis is the most important type, in this cartilage loses its elasticity. When the cartilage becomes damaged it causes pain. Osteoarthritis is related with age. Rheumatoid arthritis is an inflammatory form of arthritis. Rheumatoid arthritis affects the patient between 40 to 60 years of age. Infectious arthritis occurs when there is an infection in the fluid and tissues of a joint. It can be caused by bacteria, fungi or viruses. Juvenile rheumatoid arthritis means arthritis that affects a person who is below 16 years of age. It is of different types. Workers in some specific professions appear to have a greater risk of developing arthritis than others.

Link to website

http://orthopedics.about.com/od/arthritis/f/arthritiscauses.htm

What are the main sign and symptoms of arthritis?

The most common sign and symptom of arthritis is the involvement of joints. Depending on the type of arthritis, signs and symptoms may comprise: joint pain (that may be dull to severe aching), joint rigidity and stiffness, decreased range of joint movements, loss of joint function, redness over joints, swollen joints that are warm and tender to the touch. Frequently, only a few of these symptoms may be present. Other general symptoms that may be related to inflammation include: fever and chills, headaches, muscle stiffness loss of appetite, fatigue and loss of energy.

Link to website

http://www.webmd.com/osteoarthritis/guide/arthritis-inflammation

What is Rheumatism? What Is The Difference Between Arthritis And Rheumatism?

Rheumatism is a non-specific term for medical conditions which affect both connective tissue and the joints. "Rheumatism" is an informal term which is less commonly used by doctors. Rheumatic conditions are commonly categorized as localized, (when a specific location is painful) regional, (a larger region is involved and painful), and generalized, (many parts of the body are effected). While arthritis mentions to several diseases which affect the joints. Patients with arthritis usually experience continuous joint pain. Arthritis can attack adjacent structures, such as the muscles, and even the heart, liver, lungs and kidneys. Arthritis tends to be a long-term disease. Rheumatism is an outdated term for rheumatic fever. Arthritis is a definite term while Rheumatism is an indefinite term.

Link to website

http://www.news-medical.net/health/What-is-Rheumatism.aspx

How to Reverse Osteopenia?

Osteopenia is a bone disorder characterized by a decreased bone density, which leads to bone weakening and fracture. Osteopenia is the first phase before osteoporosis. In osteopenia, the bone loss is not as severe as in osteoporosis. It's a common condition in females, particularly those who have reached menopause. There are few measures that can be taken to prevent osteopenia. Such as;

Request a bone density test from your physician.

Get some sunlight. It is a good source of vitamin D.

Increase your calcium intake. Food sources of calcium comprise dairy products, almonds, fish, broccoli oats and soy products.

Do regular exercise.

Avoid alcohol, caffeine and tobacco.

Link to website

http://www.ehow.com/how_5329198_reverse-osteopenia.html

What is shoulder pain?

Shoulder pain comprises any pain that originates from your shoulder. Shoulder pain may initiate in the shoulder joint itself, or from any of the many adjacent muscles, tendons or ligaments. Shoulder pain gets worse with movement or activities of your arm or shoulder. Some diseases and conditions affecting tissues and organs in abdomen or chest, such as gallbladder disease or heart disease, also can cause shoulder pain. Shoulder pain that originates from some other organ or tissue is called "referred pain." Referred pain generally doesn't get worse with movement of shoulder.

Link to website

http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/shoulder-pain/MY00189

What causes shoulder pain?

Shoulder pain is a tremendously common condition, and there are many causes of this disorder. It is important to make a precise diagnosis of the symptoms so that proper treatment can be done. Some common causes of shoulder pain comprise:

Bursitis/Rotator Cuff Tendonitis: it is inflammation of bursa and tendons of shoulder joints

Rotator Cuff Tear: when the tendons of the rotator cuff of shoulder separate from the bone.

Frozen Shoulder: this is a very common disorder that leads to joint stiffness.

Calcific Tendonitis: in this condition calcium deposits within a tendon

Shoulder Instability: it can be caused by a trauma or injury

Shoulder Dislocation: it is an injury that occurs when arm bone becomes disconnected from shoulder.

Shoulder Separation: these injuries occur due to disruption of the shoulder joint.

Arthritis

Biceps Tendon Rupture

Link to website

http://orthopedics.about.com/cs/shouldersurgery/a/shoulderpain.htm

What is shoulder tendonitis and what are its treatments?

Shoulder tendonitis, also known as rotator cuff tendonitis, is an inflammation of the rotator cuff or biceps tendon. It is typically the result of a tendon being strained by surrounding structures. It often occurs in certain sports, such as in weightlifting, racket sports, baseball, and certain swimming strokes. Patients of shoulder tendonitis may be unable to hold arm in particular positions and they experience pain or tenderness in the shoulder. Diagnostic measures for shoulder tendonitis may comprise an X-ray, magnetic resonance imaging (MRI), and ultrasound. Treatment options may include: rest, anti-inflammatory medications, physiotherapy, ultrasound therapy, steroid injection or Surgery in severe cases.

Link to website

http://www.hopkinsmedicine.org/healthlibrary/conditions/spine_shoulder_and_pelvis_disorders/shoulder_tendonitis_85,P01387/

What does it mean to have a joint replacement?

Joint replacement surgery is removing a broken and damaged joint and placing in a new one. When two or more bones come together, it is called a joint, like the knee, shoulder and hip. The surgery is performed by a doctor who is called an orthopedic surgeon. At times, the surgeon will not take out the whole joint, but will only change or fix the damaged or broken parts. The joint replacement is suggested by doctors to improve the quality of life. Replacing a joint can not only relieve the pain but it also helps you to move and feel better. Hips and knees are most frequently replaced. Other joints that can be replaced comprise the fingers, ankles, shoulders and elbows.

Link to website

http://www.niams.nih.gov/health_info/joint_replacement/default.asp

Why hip joint replacement procedure is performed?

The most common reason to have a hip joint replacement procedure is to relieve arthritis pain that is restricting your activities. Hip joint replacement is typically done in people older than 60 years, but many patients who are having this surgery are younger. Younger patients who have a hip replacement procedure may put extra pressure on the artificial hip. That extra pressure causes more damage. Part or the entire joint may need to be changed again if that occurs. Your doctor may suggest a hip replacement for these problems: severe hip pain, treatment failure, limitation of hip movements, fracture or hip joint tumors.

Link to website

http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/002975.htm

What are the benefits and risks of joint replacement surgery?

There are a lot of benefits of joint replacement surgery. Artificial joints may help to reduce joint pain. It restores and sustains joint movements. It also Improve the alignment of the joint and its overall functions. There are certain risks associated with the joint replacement surgery. Implant loosening or fracture occurs over time and it may require another surgery to replace or repair the damaged parts. Other risks include; infection, dislocation of the artificial joint, joint pain or stiffness (if the procedure or implant fails), damage to vessels, nerves or other adjacent structures in the region of the surgery.

Link to website

http://www.assh.org/Public/HandConditions/Pages/JointReplacement.aspx

What Causes Leg Pain?

Leg pain denotes to any kind of pain that occurs in the middle of the pelvis the heels. There are many causes of leg pain, and not all of them originate in the leg; some spinal problems or injuries can also cause pains in the leg. Pain in leg can be due to a muscle cramps. Common causes of cramps are: dehydration or low amounts of serum electrolytes, certain medications, muscle fatigue or strain from exercise. An injury or fracture can also cause leg pain. Other causes include; inflamed tendon, arthritis, atherosclerosis (blockage of blood flow in the arteries), infection of the bone or skin and soft tissue, nerve damage and bone tumors.

Link to website

http://www.nlm.nih.gov/medlineplus/ency/article/003182.htm

What is knee joint replacement?

Knee replacement surgery is actually a cartilage replacement. The knee itself is not changed, only the damaged and injured cartilage and bone ends are replaced. Knee replacement implants contain a metal alloy on the end of the thigh bone (upper end of knee) and polyethylene, which is made of plastic, on the top of the tibia (lower end of knee) and beneath the kneecap. The implant is intended to produce a new, effortlessly operative joint that can stop painful bone to bone contact. Your surgeon will decide to replace all or a part of your knee, depending on your situation and the amount to which your knee is affected by disease.

Link to website

http://www.biomet.com/patients/knee_replacement.cfm

What is low back pain?

Pain in the lower back is very common, affecting up to 90% of individual at some point in their lifetime. Low back pain is not a particular disease. It is only a symptom that may perhaps occur from a variety of different diseases. Back pain may have many reasons, but frequently no specific cause is found and the pain stops. In 90% cases, pain will be relieved within two months even if no medicine is given. Doctors typically refer back pain as acute if it is less than a month and chronic if it continues for a longer period of time. Pain in the lower back may be related to the lower spine (spinal vertebra, discs and ligaments), lower back muscles, abdomen and pelvic organs. Back pain can also be caused by nerve root irritation.

Link to website

http://www.emedicinehealth.com/back_pain/article_em.htm

What is back pain and what causes back pain?

Back pain is a very common complaint. Though back pain might be uncomfortable and painful, usually, it is not serious. Back pain can affect people of any age; it is considerably more common between 35 and 55 years. The human back is composed of muscles, ligaments, tendons, disks and bones. Problems with any of these structures can lead to back pain. In some cases of back pain, the cause is never found. Most common cause of back pain is strain. Other causes may be; muscle spasm, arthritis, sciatica (nerve pain), disk pain, osteoporosis, abnormal curvature of spine, infection, poor posture, sleep disorder or tumor.

Link to website

http://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/172943.php

What is the treatment for sacroiliac joint pain?

Injections into the joint can provide treatment. The period of pain relief from injection can be one day to long term. The injections may be repeated each month for three each year. Oral anti-inflammatory medications are often effective in pain relief. These can be taken long term. In some cases, oral steroids are provided for short periods of time, to treat the tenderness and irritation. Physical therapy can be very helpful. If all treatments fail and pain continues to restrict normal activities, then surgery may be an option. Surgery should be considered only when other less invasive treatments have failed.

Link to website

http://www.medicinenet.com/sacroiliac_joint_pain/article.htm#what_is_sacroiliac_joint_dysfunction

What causes joint pain?

Joint pain is discomfort that originates from any joint. Joint pain is also called arthralgia or arthritis. Joint pain can be mild and dull causing some soreness or it can be severe and sharp, making joint stiff and rigid. Joint pain is hardly an emergency. Cases of mild joint pain can be managed at home. Causes of joint pain are: fracture, sprains, strains, infection, dislocation, rheumatoid arthritis, gout, osteopenia, osteoarthritis, osteoporosis, septic arthritis or bone tumors.

Link to website

http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/joint-pain/MY00187/DSECTION=causes

Is pain in left arm, a heart attack symptom?

Arm pain is a type of pain or uneasiness/discomfort in the arm region, which is measured from the shoulder to the wrist. Arms are made up of muscles, bones, joints, tendons, nerves, blood vessels and ligaments, all of which are prone to injury, infection, or other conditions that may be painful. Arm pain may last temporarily or be constant, and it might affect the entire arm or only a specific area. Pain may be dull, sharp or tingly. Arm pain may be simply uncomfortable and frustrating, or it can be so unbearable that whole arm can’t be moved. Arm pain can arise from different conditions ranging from trauma to nerve irritation. Arm pain can also arise from other part of the body such as chest or neck. This type of pain is termed referred arm pain. This referred arm pain can be a sign of a heart attack and may be associated with the feeling of squeezing pain or pressure in the middle of the chest, sweating, nausea, vomiting, difficulty breathing, irregular heart rate, and. Look for emergency medical care if you have pain in left arm along with these symptoms. If you do not have above mentioned symptoms, but still your arm pain is persistent and recurrent, seek medical care.

Link to website

http://www.localhealth.com/article/arm-pain/causes

What causes finger pain?

There are several causes of finger joint pain. Almost everyone experiences a finger injury during their lives. Any structure that constitutes the finger, including tendons, muscles, bones, ligaments, blood vessels and nerves, may cause finger pain. Tingling pain in the finger can be due to the nerves compression. Joint problems may also cause finger pain. In fact, most of the most common causes of finger pain are related to joints conditions. Finger pain may be associated with; fracture, dislocation, sprains, arthritis, gout, infection, nerve compression, diabetes mellitus, frostbite, circulatory problems or vitamin B12 deficiency.

Link to website

http://www.livestrong.com/article/224702-what-causes-finger-joint-pain/

How to get rid of pinched nerve in shoulder?

A pinched nerve in the shoulder causes severe pain and discomfort. The bones, muscles, tendons, cartilage, and tissues neighboring the nerve are pressing on the nerve producing pressure and the "pinched" sensation. It is important to get appropriate medical advice to prevent or reduce permanent nerve damage. Normally, a pinched nerve will improve within a week if the patient takes rests and follows the simple precautions, such as avoid doing exercise and any vigorous activity that may put pressure on the adjacent shoulder muscles. Patients should sleep on the back. If they can't do that, then they should place a cushion under their stomach to keep their back straight. Your may take a pain reliever if the pain is significant. In severe cases when the pain may be unbearable and debilitating, the doctor may prescribe stronger pain medicines and possibly suggest physical therapy. Surgery is a last choice.

Link to website

http://www.ehow.com/about_5158648_treatments-pinched-nerve-shoulder_.html

What Is Rheumatoid Arthritis?

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is an inflammatory disease affecting many tissues but principally attacking the joints. Genes, Infection, and hormonal changes may be associated with the disease. RA occurs due to defective immune system. RA is a very common condition; it is three to five times more prevalent in women than in men. It generally occurs in the second to fourth decades of life. Signs and symptoms of RA may include: painful and swollen joints, morning stiffness, firm bumps of tissue under the skin (rheumatoid nodules), fever, fatigue and weight loss. Rheumatoid arthritis increases your risk of developing: heart problems, lung diseases, carpal tunnel syndrome (compression of nerves of hand) and osteoporosis (a condition that weakens your bones). RA can be diagnosed by characteristic radiographic findings and Rheumatoid Factor (RF) that will be positive in 80% of patients. There is no remedy for rheumatoid arthritis. Medicines can reduce inflammation in the joints to relieve pain and prevent joint damage. Physical therapy can also be helpful. If joints are severely damaged by RA, surgery may be required.

Link to website

http://www.arthritis.org/conditions-treatments/disease-center/rheumatoid-arthritis/