Advantages Of Supercapacitors Over Lithium Batteries Information Technology Essay

Super Capacitors

Statement: Prepare a short report about super capacitors�for portable devices. The report should include the following information:

> Introduction about super capacitors (how they work)

> Advantages of super capacitors compared to Lithium batteries.

> Difficulties to use of super capacitors in portable devices.


Supercapacitor is a modern energy storing device, storing very high value of electric capacitance in a very compact structure. They are rated in farads, and offers thousands of times higher storing capacity than the electrolytic capacitor.

They are also known as Ultra capacitors and Double layer capacitors. Differs with the convention energy storing methods of capacitors, that they are not made up of dielectric material. They store energy in plates filled with double layer of same substance .This allows for separating the charge. Without the need for a dielectric, the plates are packed with a much larger surface area, resulting in high capacitance. [1]

The supercapacitor is ideal for energy storage that undergoes frequent charge and discharge cycles at high current and short duration [2]

Working Principle

Supercapacitors have positive and negative electrodes, usually made up of activated carbon material. These electrodes are separated by a thin layer of electrolytic separator.

Charges are stored in an electric double layer. A separator layer is established at the interface between the electrolyte, which is usually a conductive the liquid medium.

When the capacitor is charging, ions in the electrolyte moves towards the carbon plates (electrodes) of opposite polarities because electric field is created between these electrodes and the applied voltage.

Thus creating two separate layers of charges (due to which they are also called double layered capacitor )

Internal Structure of Supercapacitor


Supercapacitors have three major classifications, depending upon the types of electrolyte used and electrodes:

* Double-layer capacitors � Energy storage method is Electro Static.

* Pseudocapacitors � Energy storage method is Electro Chemical

* Hybrid capacitors �They store charges both electrostatically and electrochemically, having features of both Pseudocapacitors

and Double-layer capacitance. Special electrodes are used for this purpose.

Major Classifications of Supercapacitor

Supercapacitors are made up with different materials varying with the energy storing methods, some of them are [4]

* Powdered activated carbon

* Polymers

* Graphene (A polymer, chain of tightly packed carbon atoms)

* Carbon nanotubes (Under research)

Advantages of Supercapacitors Over Lithium Batteries

> Supercapacitors have much longer life than that that Lithium batteries, normally of 10 to 20 years.

> Thay have very high charging rate, can be charged within seconds.[5]

> Supercapacitors can be easily installed and offers easy interface with other devices with flexible mountings.

> Super capacitors have very fast transient response as compared to the commonly available lithium ion batteries (~ 20 micro seconds) [6]

> They have wide operating temperature ranges normally varying from - 45 � C to + 55 � C [7]

> Supercapacitors involve no chemical reaction for storing energy therefore this mechanism is reversible and the charging and discharging cycle life of thousands of times.

Difficulties to Use Super capacitors in Portable Devices

The common disadvantages of Supercapacitors, which make them unsuitable for portable devoces are stated below:

> They are very expensive as compared to the lithium ions batteries

> Cells of supercapacitors have low voltages, to obtain higher voltages, large number of cells are required to be connected in series.

> They have very high self discharge rate as compared to the batteries

> One of the main disadvantage is high sparking hazards of supercapacitors , which make them very dangerous for using in portable devices. They have very low internal impedence and because of the high discharging property of supercapacitors, they produce dangerous sparks on shorting.

Literature References

[1] WiseGEEK, �What is Supercapacitor�, URL:, last accessed on 30/03/2013

[2]Battery University, ��Supercapacitors��, URL:, last accessed on 31/03/2013

[3] Wikipedia, � Electric double-layer capacitors� URL:, last accessed on 30/03/2013

[4] WiseGEEK, �What is Supercapacitor�, URL:, last accessed on 31/03/2013

[5] Battery and Energy Technology, �Capacitors and Supercapacitors�, URL:, last accessed on 31/03/2013

[6] FaraDigm, � What are the advantages of Ultracapacitors? �, URL:, last accessed on 31/03/2013

[7] FaraDigm, � What are the advantages of Ultracapacitors? �, URL:, last accessed on 31/03/2013

HDMI Evolution

Question Statement: Describe the evolution of HDMI version 1.0 (December 2002) to 2.0 (ongoing work � will be released in the first half 2013) by,

> Indicating the difference improvements (maximum throughputs, color depth, etc.) between the different specifications.


High-Definition Multimedia Interface is a globally used interface for transcieving digital signal to lot of I/O devices. HDMI was first introduced in 2002 and was commercially available in 2003, is basically a digital audio video connector, having 7 largest manufactures around the world

It supports huge variety of Audio Video transmitting formats including LPCM (Linear Pulse Code Modulation),�Dolby Digital,�DTS (Digital Theatre System),�DVD-Audio, Super Audio CD,�Dolby Digital Plus,�Dolby True HD Audio video formats, DTS-HD Master Audio, MPCM (Multi Processor Communication Mode),�DSD (Direct Stream Digital),�DST (Direct Stream Transfer) [1]. It also carries all the control and status information in both directions.

With the fast growing technological requirements of the world, HDMI evolution has passed through the various eras of development from version 1.0 to the upcoming 2.0.

There are --- different phases of HDMI evolution since the last ten years. There comparison and relative improvements are explained.

HDMI Evolution (2002 ~ 2013)�[2] , [3]

HDMI 1.0 � Released in December 2002

* Data transfer rate of 4.9 Gbit/s.

* Supports up to 165Mpixels/s video

* Supports 8-channel/192 kHz/24-bit audio.

* Had same features of version 1.0

* Additional feature DVD audio support.

HDMI 1.2�- Released in August 2005

* Support for One Bit Audio (up to 8 channels), which is used on Super Audio CDs

* Enabled PCs to use RGB color-space with the YCbCr CE color support.

HDMI 1.2a�- Released in December 2005

* Supports CEC (Consumer Electronics Control) Protocol

* Improved cable connector

* Certified connector list established

HDMI 1.3-�Released June 2006� (fully compatible with previous ones)

* Increased single-link bandwidth to 340 MHz

* Supports 30-bit, 36-bit, and 48-bit YCbCr with Deep Color (over one billion colors)

* Supports lip sync function

* Supports Dolby TrueHD and DTS-HD Master Audio streams for external decoding by AV receivers..

HDMI 1.3a- Released November 2006

* Improvement in CEC feature was improved (added audio controls).

* Type C cable was modified.

* Quantization range of RGB video was clarified.

HDMI 1.4 -Released June 5, 2009

* Audio Return Channel

* 3D Visualization Support

* Additional Color Spaces

* HDMI Ethernet Channel, Automotive Connection and Micro Connector was introduced.

HDMI 2.0 � Will Release in 2013

Expected to have

* Double bandwidth (enough for 4K at 60Hz)

* Support 21x9 aspect ratio

[1] Wikipedia, � HDMI�, URL:, last accessed on 01/04/2013

[2] Columbia ISA, � HDMI Versions�, URL:, last accessed on 01/04/2013

[3]High- Def Digest, � HDMI 1.0/1.1/1.2/1.3 explanation� , URL: , last accessed on 01/04/2013

Creative Common Movement

Question Statement: Present

> The objectives of CC movement

> The different license elements defined by the CC

> The possible licenses available.

Support your explanation by providing examples of Copyrighted material protected under each type of license.


Creative Commons is an american co-operation, founded in 2001. CC creates laws for the protection, redistribution re-using the literature. The issue diffent types of licences providing flexibilty to the author and user for copying , sharing , commercially distributing or even using the literature for creating something new.

CC licenses let you easily change your copyright terms from the default of �all rights reserved� to �some rights reserved.�[1]

License Elements

"License Elements"�means high-level license attributes which are selected by Licensor and indicated in the title of the License. [2] Creative Common has defined four license elements. There explanations are given below:

> Sharing: The author gives the sharing and distribution rights of his work to other people with certain conditions applied.

> Attribution: The author demands attribution wherever his content is referred.

> Noncommercial: The author does not allow people to sell his content.

> No Derivative Works: The author does not allow people to modify his work.

Symbols used for License Elements[3]

Licenses Available

There are six different types of Creative Common Licenses available. All these licenses vary with the varying supporting license elements.

* Attribution (CC BY)

This type of License provides distribution rights to all people, commercially and non commercially.

Arduino softwares and hardwares are distributed under a Creative Commons Attribution Share-Alike 2.5 license.[4]

* Attribution Share Alike (CC BY-SA)

This license lets other people work and create using the your work, for commercial and non commercial purposes, giving attribute to the original writer. The new document will also have the same license and could be used commercially.

This is the license used by Wikipedia. [5]

* Attribution No Derivatives (CC BY-ND)

This license gives the rights of all kinds of redistribution and usage, commercial and non-commercial, but the content should be remain unchanged and referred with credit to you.

* Attribution Non-Commercial (CC BY-NC)

This license allow people to use your work, acknowledging you, non-commercially. The derived work does not have the same license terms.

Co-Mixture, a music site uses this license [6]

* Attribution Non-Commercial Share Alike (CC BY-NC-SA)

This license lets others use your work non-commercially, referring you. The new work shares the same license.

Open courseware uses this (CC BY-NC-SA) license [7]

* Attribution Non-Commercial No Derivatives (CC BY-NC-ND)

This license allows sharing the original text, acknowledging the writer. It cannot be modified or used commercially.

Literature References

[1] Creative Commons Website, last accessed on 1/03/2013

[2] Creative Commons Website, URL, last accessed on 1/03/2013

[3] Scott Marlow, �Creative Common Licence�, URL :, last accessed on 1/03/2013

[4]Wikipedia , �Arduino�, URL: last accessed on 1/03/2013

[5] The London School of Economics and Political Science, �Creative Commons and open access to scholarly works�, URL:, last accessed on 1/03/2013

[6] Wikipedia ,�Co-mixture, calls for remixes �, URL:, last accessed on 1/03/2013

[7] Wikipedia, �Open Courseware, Principles �, URL: , last accessed on 1/03/2013