Pm Is Mainly Concerned With Promotion Management Essay
In the 1970s and 1980s, the business function which was responsible for people was called "The Personnel Department". The personnel department was responsible for hiring people, paying them, and making sure they receive the necessary benefits. Personnel Management (PM) is mainly concerned with promotion, and enhancing the development of work effectiveness and advancement of the human resource in the organization. This is achieved through proper planning, organizing, directing, coordinating and controlling of activities related to procurement, development, motivation and compensation. Employees are forced in order to achieve organizational goals.
1.2 Human Resource Management
Human Resource Management (HRM) is the deliberate and consistent approach to the management of an organization's most valued assets - the people working there who individually and collectively contribute to the achievement of the objectives of the business. The terms "HRM" and "human resources" have largely replaced the term "PM" as a description of the processes involved in managing people in organizations. In simple words, HRM means: employing people, developing their resources, utilizing, maintaining and compensating their services in tune with the job, and organizational requirement.
PM and HRM refer to the same processes. HRM is a modern term that emerged during the 1970s and won final acceptance in 1989. Both terms, however, referred to the same thing; the personnel who work for a company represent that company’s human resources. The picture on the next page gives an outline of the "Evolution of the HR Function".
Task for P2:
2.0 Assess the role, tasks and activities of the human resource practitioner.
2.1 Brief Overview
Human capital and its associated principles of ‘talent management’: this is the process of acquiring and nurturing talent by the anticipation of required human capital the organization needs at the time, then setting a plan to meet those needs (Armstrong, 2006); are sound platforms on which to control a company’s essential resources to achieve corporate goals (De Guzman, et al., 2011). There are, however, considerable differences between the current Human Resource Management (HRM) functions as practiced and the ideal HRM functions.
2.2 Models of Human Resource Management - The Role
The model usually used for HRM has been to organize it as a staff function that works indirectly, through condition of policies and tools for managing people and through education of line managers (Worren, 2008). An alternative model is to give HRM the responsibility for managing people who are organized in a company-wide competence centre or resource pool (Worren, 2008). Overall, it is used to increase flexibility and improve the ability to organize talent across internal borders of the organization. For the HRM function, it implies a significant shift in that people managers are made responsible for resource allocation and competence development and liable for any disruption in the function (Worren, 2008). However, the HRM function is still a support function in most companies, with only indirect accountability for human resources (Worren, 2008).
In reality, it is not an easy task for Human Resource (HR) managers to undertake all these activities. They tend to control human resources rather than strategically manage it. Hence, what HR managers do (practice) and what they would like to do (ideal) tends to contradict (De Guzman, et al., 2011).
2.3 Tasks and Activities
Strategic HRM creates a clear link between the goals of the organization and the activities of the workforce (DeCenzo & Robbins, 2010). All employees should see the link between their daily tasks and achievement of a purpose or goal. HRM can be viewed in one of two ways. First, HRM is a staff or support function in the organization. Its role is to provide assistance in HRM matters to line employees, or those directly involved in producing the organization’s goods and services (DeCenzo & Robbins, 2010). Second, HRM is a function of every manager’s job. Whether or not one works in a formal HRM department, the fact remains that to effectively manage employees; all managers must handle their activities (DeCenzo & Robbins, 2010).
HRM activities consist of:
Training and Development
Communication (DeCenzo & Robbins, 2010)
Contacting a group of qualified applicants is one of the most important aspects of recruiting, which helps give line managers more choice in selecting a more qualified person for a specific job (DeCenzo & Robbins, 2010). Organizations must have a clear reason for needing individuals for specific jobs on the basis of their specific skills, knowledge, and abilities (DeCenzo & Robbins, 2010).
2.3b Employee Selection
Once applicants have been identified, a human resource manager matches available human resources to jobs (Armstrong, 2006). Selection helps thin out the large set of applications that arrived during the recruiting phase and to select an applicant who will be successful on the job. Hiring good people is challenging in this age where most organizations are technology based and they require a unique brand of professional skills (DeCenzo & Robbins, 2010).
2.3c Training and Development
The goal of training and development is to have competent, adapted employees who possess the up-to-date skills, knowledge, and abilities needed to perform their current jobs more successfully (DeCenzo & Robbins, 2010). If that is attained, HRM turns its attention to finding ways to motivate these individuals to put forth high energy levels (DeCenzo & Robbins, 2010). The training and development function tends to be a continuous process. The fact is that few of the newly selected employees can truly come into an organization and immediately become fully functioning performers (DeCenzo & Robbins, 2010). First, employees need to adapt to their new surroundings. HRM plays an important role in understanding employees so they can become fully productive. To accomplish this, HRM typically get on four areas in the training and development phase: employee training, employee development, organization development, and career development (DeCenzo & Robbins, 2010).
Human behavior is complex, and trying to figure out what motivates different employees has long been a concern of behavioral scientists (DeCenzo & Robbins, 2010). One’s performance in an organization is a function of three factors: ability, willingness and opportunity to do the job (Jiang, et al., 2012). Thus, from a performance perspective, employees need the appropriate skills and abilities, motivation and the opportunity to adequately do the job. Motivating employees also requires a level of respect between management and the workers; by involving employees in decisions that affect them, listening to employees, and implementing their suggestions where appropriate will earn respect (DeCenzo & Robbins, 2010). HR managers must be sure that the performance evaluation system is designed to provide feedback to employees regarding their past performance, while at the same time deal with any performance weaknesses the employee may have (DeCenzo & Robbins, 2010).
HRM communications programs are designed to keep employees informed of what is happening in the organization, knowledgeable of the policies and procedures affecting them, and provide a place to vent frustrations (DeCenzo & Robbins, 2010). Employee relations programs should ensure that employees are kept well informed: through such things as the company’s e-mail, voicemail, website, bulletin boards, town hall meetings, and video conferencing (DeCenzo & Robbins, 2010). A system like this can build trust and frankness among organizational members that helps endure even the sharing of bad news. However, this process is difficult to implement and maintain, but the rewards should be in a way that the effort put in such accomplishments is justified.
Task for P3:
3.0 Evaluate the role and responsibilities of line managers in human resource practices.
First line managers generally supervise production on line tasks in the manufacturing business, and typically consist of positions such as foreman, shift boss. First line managers are an important source of information about worker satisfaction for higher management to take into account in their organizational planning process.
Line managers help HR to implement new rules and regulation amongst the lower staff.
3.1 Line Managers Play their Role in HRM
Typically the management responsibilities carried out by line managers might include:
Day-to-Day People Management
Managing Operational Costs
Providing Technical Expertise
Organization of Work Allocation and Quotas
Monitoring Work Processes
Dealing with Customers/Clients
Measuring Operational Performance.
Line managers in many organizations also carry out activities that have traditionally fallen within the remit of HR such as providing training and assistance, undertaking performance appraisals and dealing with discipline and grievances. They also often carry out tasks such as recruitment and selection or pastoral care in conjunction with HR.
Organizations must have a well-defined reason for needing individuals who possess specific skills, knowledge, and abilities directly linked to specific jobs; line managers help HRM in making this decision.
3.1b Disciplinary Handling
Discipline in the workplace begins when a line manager sets out his expectations with his team. These expectations may be supported by policies and procedures produced by the HR department. However, the line manager's promise to enforcing the rules is more likely to influence employee performance and behavior than any polished employee handbook. If a line manager is seen to break the rules, he will struggle to enforce them with his team. If he needs to take formal disciplinary action against a team member, his own behavior will be cast back at him.
3.1c Absence Management
Line managers can reduce the absenteeism in an organization by deducting the pay of the worker who does not show up for work, and as a motivator he can try to find out the reason of why s/he did not show up for work and try solving it (if possible). Line managers can use overtime pay as a motivator for workers to meet their goals.
The training and development function tends to be a continuous process. The fact is that few, if any, new employees can truly come into an organization and immediately become fully functioning performers. First, employees need to adapt to their new surroundings. Line manager plays an important role in assimilating employees so they can become fully productive line manager acts as someone to look up to like a mentor or role model.
Human behavior is complex, and trying to figure out what motivates different employees has long been a concern of behavioral scientists, Ability, willingness and opportunity to do the job. Motivating employees also requires a level of respect between management and the workers, Involving employees in decisions that affect them. Managers must be sure that the performance evaluation system is designed to provide feedback to employees regarding their past performance, while simultaneously addressing any performance weaknesses the employee may have.
Task for M1:
4.0 Discuss the role, tasks and activities of human resource manager and line manager in the HR practices of organization under study.
4.1 Brief Overview
How the HR and line manager carry out their work in the outfits factory would be quite similar to what we discussed in P2 and P3. Since it’s a factory and much of the activities within it would be around production, it will consist of: unskilled, semi-skilled and skilled labor (Armstrong, 2006); including the line manager and HR manager themselves. Also, since the activities would be based around production, the way the HR manager and line manager carry out their duties would affect efficiency of the factory. And since efficiency has to do with using the minimum amount of resources to complete any given task; the HR and line manager have to bring about a balance in how they lower cost and reduce time wastage without the need to pay the workers less, make them work more than required or sack them.
4.2 Analysis of the Organization - Recruiting
The client needs to gain a clear strategic understanding of his/her business and its processes. The client needs to understand the market s/he is in, who the competitors are, who the customers are, the kinds of goods they seek, the price points of the clientele, the types of marketing that attract the clientele, and how it can be profitable within that environment (Whisenant & Kavanaugh, 2010). The line managers can help in determining all of this since they will be responsible for monitoring the production line. Once it is determined where the business is positioned strategically, the line manager will send his/her analysis to the HR department. The HR manager can then start the recruitment process in order to hire employees that meet the needs of the business, design jobs, and provide compensation that will attract the workforce it needs (Whisenant & Kavanaugh, 2010).
4.3 Training and Development Tactics
Human capital represents the human factor in the organization; the combined intelligence, skills and expertise that give the organization its distinctive character (Armstrong, 2006). The line managers will assist the HR manager in the proper training of employees which is necessary to accumulate specific human capital with high skills not only in production techniques but also in other areas; such as factory management, international procurement, and international marketing (Mottaleb & Sonobe, 2011). Thus, more and well-trained employees will lead to increased production; not just in numbers but also in quality across all departments. Rousseau (1990) described that relationship between the employer and the employee starts from recruitment; encouraging long-term relationship and loyalty. Vos & Meganck (2009) indicated that career development plan for the employees play a vital role in the retention of employees. Northam & Hannay (2000) argued that future opportunities for the employees also help in retaining employees because these opportunities are associated with more pay, additional work responsibilities, superior work environment and different incentives plans. Money is not the sole factor here but it has significant effect while recruiting the employee (Sohail, et al., 2011). The HR manager will plan to provide these career development opportunities and delegate the task to the line managers to carry out the process. Therefore, development opportunities will lead to an increase in loyalty which helps restrict employees from leaving the organization (Sohail, et al., 2011).
4.4 Motivation Tactics
For all of this to be effective; job security, training and employee involvement must work together rather than be used in isolation (Thomas, 1993). The HR manager can rely on a variety of human resource management practices; such as job enrichment and team working to help improve firm performance and also motivate employees (Jayawardana & O'Donnell, 2010). Job enrichment involves providing levels of responsibility to lower level employees, including the delegation of work tasks previously undertaken by supervisors (Jayawardana & O'Donnell, 2010). The line manager can make teams which should then be delegated the task for solving problems like absenteeism and turnover, which in turn will let them understand and decide who needs to leave and who will work when someone is absent (Jayawardana & O'Donnell, 2010). This initiative delegates increased decision-making responsibility to production line employees which in turn helps reduce employees’ absenteeism levels and product reject rates, and increase work output and efficiency (Jayawardana & O'Donnell, 2010). It also helps motivate the workforce since they get a sense of belonging and can feel that the organization is recognizing their existence as human beings, not like machines. By giving proper salaries and rewards, employees will be satisfied and won’t leave the organization. In order to do this first; the HR manager, with the help of the line manager’s analysis of course, needs to realize the needs and demands of the employees.
4.5 Communication within the Organization
Communication and HR management activities have an important relationship with efficiency (Luthans, et al., 1992). The HR manager may create an employee handbook that highlights any fringe benefits the employees are entitled to in order to avoid situations of uncertainty and inconsistencies to employees (Whisenant & Kavanaugh, 2010). The line manager can address employee complaints for discussion by implementing some process to get feedback from the employees. By implementing scheduled meetings with the employees, it could serve as a platform for them to release their frustration and provide the client with meaningful information about the activities within the business. Social networking among employees is also vital to retain employees (Chapman, 2009). The line manager will have the responsibility to help new employees to familiarize and socialize with the environment of the organization and make them best fit for the organization (Chapman, 2009). Thus, employees will be highly motivated in their work and more loyal to the organization.
Task for D1:
Critically overview the role and responsibilities of both HR and line manager in the organization, and suggest what improvements it will bring to the organization.
5.1 Human Capital
As we discussed earlier in the M1 task, the "human elements" of the organization: those that are capable of learning, changing, innovating and providing the creative thrust (Armstrong, 2006); if encouraged and inspired properly can help guarantee the long-term existence of the organization under study. Therefore, business growth not only depends on the business size, but also on the ‘human capital’ of the entrepreneur (Mottaleb & Sonobe, 2011); in this case, the outfit’s factory owner. Human capital is the most important asset of an organization because without it a business ceases to exist. It needs to be invested in so that the business can grow and prosper. Therefore, the HR manager will make sure that the organization acquires and preserves the skilled, loyal and well-motivated workforce it needs (Armstrong, 2006). Since the HR manager will be above the line manager according to the organization’s structural hierarchy, the line manager will be responsible to report anything in regards to the employees that are under the supervision of the line manager. This indicates that the line manager is also an employee of the HR manager. Therefore, whatever good or bad applies to the employees as a whole, will also apply to the line manager.
5.2 A Moral HRM Approach
In a developing country like Pakistan, due to increased global competition, the outfit factory can use efficient and effective manufacturing processes in order to improve productivity levels (Jayawardana & O'Donnell, 2010). However, the HR manager should not focus on workforce reduction and restructuring so as to avoid a backlash from the labor (Jayawardana & O'Donnell, 2010), and also to avoid employee turnover; which of course is a major threat to the organization (Sohail, et al., 2011). In the case of an employee that quits his/her job, the line manager and the HR manager should take a crucial step to retain the other employees. By giving proper salaries and rewards, employees will be satisfied and won’t leave the organization (Sohail, et al., 2011). The line manager needs to realize the needs and demands of the employees under him and then convey it to the HR manager. So therefore, to further avoid accusations from trade unions, human rights groups and non-governmental organizations for exploiting employees and the practice of using child labor (Humphrey & Schmitz, 2001); it is required that the business follow codes of conduct regarding labor standards, child labor issues, working environments and product safety (Humphrey & Schmitz, 2001).
5.3 Lean Production from an HRM Perspective
As suggested earlier in M1, the HR manager can implement job enrichment and team working to help improve the overall firm performance. Since the outfit factory is a manufacturing plant, and instead of just controlling the workforce; lean production can be used to bring the workers to work together; and facilitate their conviction, adaption and mobilization (Videla, 2006). Lean production aims to add value by minimizing waste in terms of materials, time, space and people (Armstrong, 2006). Nowadays, manufacturers need to be really fast and responsive to the rapidly changing consumer wants and also be able to deliver the product demanded on time (Rupik, 2009). Therefore, with the help of the employee feedback, the line managers can help achieve this by identifying and cutting down the unnecessary processes in their respective departments (Rupik, 2009). Lean production is based on a management-sponsored "community of fate" ideology (Videla, 2006). If the line manager follows this ideology religiously, it can convince the workers to extend their physical, intellectual and emotional labor to the firm (Videla, 2006). However, if the line manager breaks this pact, workers will actively use the team system to ruin the firm's operations (Videla, 2006). The HR manager, although not directly involved with the workers under the line manager, will also take the downfall. So therefore, the HR manager must ensure the prevention of such circumstances.
The organization should by now know the value of their work. It should also know that when they perform poorly, it would hurt the company. When the company would get hurt, it will lose its customers and also some its workforce. So in order to progress; the HR manager, the line manager, and as well as the employees under them; need to work as a team. This will surely lead to a better future for the outfit factory.