The Philippine National Police Nursing Essay

Chapter 1

INTRODUCTION

Nursing encompasses autonomous and collaborative care of individuals of all ages, families, groups and communities, sick or well and in all settings. Nursing includes the promotion of health, prevention of illness, and the care of ill, disabled and dying people. Advocacy, promotion of a safe environment, research, participation in shaping health policy and in patient and health systems management, and education are also key nursing roles. (www.icn.ch.2010) The ability to make someone feel physically comfortable by various means at times, and the nurses’ ability to achieve or maintain health makes nursing rewarding, often it is an uncanny yet well honed knack to see beyond the obvious and address, in some way, the deeper needs of the human soul, makes nursing challenging.

As defined by the Royal College of Nursing of London (2010): nursing interventions are concerned with empowering people, and helping them to achieve, maintain or recover independence. Nursing is an intellectual, physical, emotional and moral process which includes the identification of nursing needs; therapeutic interventions and personal care; information, education, advice and advocacy; and physical, emotional and spiritual support. In addition to direct patient care, nursing practice includes management, teaching, and policy and knowledge development.

But despite these given facts nursing in much aspect has been marginalized, particularly in comparison to the valorization of the more prestigious profession of physicians. But the many areas in nursing offer a wide range of opportunities to those interested in health care. Nurses, however, can practice independently, or at any classified field of nursing in general. From providing focused care and assistance to the patients, responsibilities of a nurse can vary from an entry-level practitioner to a doctoral-level researcher. As careers in nursing are getting more and more sought after. Skilled nurses who have highly acknowledged education and training adorning their profiles have a wide range of career opportunities in front of them. All thanks to the health care options which have widened the horizons of the already conventional prerequisites for nursing with time passing by.

Generally, nursing is thought of, as a fairly challenging career which requires persistence and determination. (Taylor, 2002) As nurse are looking forward to making their career in one of the fields of nursing, essential attributes of a nurse must be evident for them to succeed in which ever field of nursing one hopes to push through. Nurses are known to be a critical thinker, they acquire fair interpersonal skills especially when dealing with their clientele and their significant others, and they must possess a strong background in science or mathematics.(Kozier, 2007) Moreover, a nurse, to succeed in her profession must possess the following attributes; (1) Communication Skills; (2). Emotional Stability; (3) Empathy; (4) Flexibility; (5) Good Attention to Detail; (6) Interpersonal Skills; (7) Physical Endurance; (8) Problem Solving Skills; (9) Quick Response and (10) Respect (Laura.2010)

In the past few months the dramatic surge of students in the nursing course has brought to the flooding of displaced nurses in our country. At present, many graduate nurses try to apply to any position that would ensure employability even if it would mean a job mismatch. . According to former Board of Nursing Chairman Sto. Tomas (2008) From 1952 to date, the country has so far registered or licensed 480,992 Filipino nurses out of the 523,272 who actually passed the Philippine Nurse Licensure Examinations. The 400,000-plus refers to the actual cumulative stock of Filipino nurses, not unemployed nurses and/or underemployed nurses. Moreover, in 2006 according to DOLE data the total number of Filipino nurses employed between October 2001 & 2007 was 58,000 (fifty eight which represented 3.86% of the total employed professional workers (1.5 million) reflected in the National Statistics Office, Labor Force Survey as source of data. A vigilant watch on the current global economic conditions and the responses of host economies will help prepare us as Filipino OFW nurses get affected by the global economic crises. Now is the time for all Filipino nurses to close ranks and consider contingency measures for the collective good of the nursing sector to cushion the effects of the said global economic crisis which will definitely impact the Filipino nurses, their families, and the country as a whole.

Here in the Philippines, majority of the graduate nurses of the recent batch can be found in call centers and other industries like the PNP. Graduate nurses, fresh graduates board passers and non-passers are attracted to the opportunity that the PNP would offer them since nurses can avail of the-so called lateral entry and acquire a rank once qualified. However, new entrant nurses are displaced in various divisions of the PNP, with nature of job far from what they had been trained to do in their baccalaureate degrees. Not all nurses who entered the PNP are given the opportunity to be employed as a nurse or even work in the medical division of the PNP. Majority, if not most, are assigned to the varied division of the PNP whose job are not closely related to nursing. For those nurses or nursing graduate, lucky enough to be assigned to the women’s desk are faced with the challenge not just to apply their nursing skills and their critical thinking to attend to the evidences laid upon by a complainant, or analyze if these evidence are grounds for a court case. However, in reality, not all assigned in the women’s desk are nurses, that is why there is difficulty in assessing the congruence of the verbal and the non-verbal cues displayed by the complainant. This study purports to offer a fast track in crime investigation particularly in far flung areas where crime occurrences has increased dramatically in the past years. As this research study would provide an avenue for the utilization of the skills of the nurses in the field of forensic and evidence gathering and prevention. Moreover, enhancing the competencies of the BSN-prepared PNP uniformed personnel would improve the performance of the PNP as an organization as a whole. Thus, the PNP should develop a series of training courses on enhancing the competencies of the PNP uniformed personnel most specially the BSN-prepared ones. The effectiveness of these training courses, can improve the efficiency of the PNP uniformed personnel,

The increasing incidence of violence against women and children in the country paired with the increasing unresolved cases of murder, rape and/or the combination of both has been a concern of the PNP as one (1) crime laboratory can be found in each region. It is along this line that the research found interest in conducting this study as this study hopes to evaluate the readiness of the PNP nurse in handling critical evidences as a forensic specialists, it purports to:

1. Determine the capability of PNP nurses to handle evidences and become part of the forensic team.

2. To resolve the job mismatch among the nurses employed in the PNP in the various department not related to the nursing profession.

3. Offer opportunity for nurses employed in the PNP to be trained in a forensic, as this is somehow related to the nature of work of a nurse.

4. To make use of the BSN graduate PNP to facilitate evidence gathering and preservation that would address the unresolved crime rates in the provinces, especially in the far flung areas where crime investigation is difficult due to I the unavailability of the crime investigation team.

REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE

The literature and studies related to the present study that were reviewed provided a background to the study. Likewise, the topics on importance of competencies, Nurse’s competencies, PNP as an organization, the competencies of the PNP uniformed personnel and nurses as member of the PNP have significant bearing to the present study.

Competence. Competence refers to a potential ability and/or a capability to function in a given situation. Competency focuses on one’s actual performance in a situation. Thus, competence makes one capable of fulfilling his/her job responsibilities. Competency is determined by comparing current work functioning with established performance standards developed in the work environment according to a specific role and setting.

What are the competencies that employees need to develop to ensure an effective or superior performance in their current and future jobs. Kuijpers (2003) forwarded three important types of competencies at work: functional, learning and career. The functional competencies are defined as the knowledge and skills necessary for employees to successfully perform their jobs. These functional competencies are based upon the employees’ tasks and roles and, hence, differ according to the industry and function (Kuijpers, 2003). The learning competencies are defined as the individual characteristics of an employee that enable him/her to develop new functional competencies (Kuijpers, 2003). According to Lindley (2002), learning competencies increasingly gain importance in the work environment since the rise of the knowledge economy and the growing need for flexibility make it important for employees to continuously invest in their development. The career competencies are described as the individual characteristics of an employee that enable him/her to guide his/her functional and learning competencies in the right direction (Kuijpers, 2003). Thereby, career competencies refer to the employee’s creation of a career identity by gaining insight into his/her own possibilities and motives and the employee’s ability to proactively translate these insights into concrete actions that can direct his/her career (De Vos & Soens, 2008).

Overview of Nursing. Nursing is basically defined as the care of others. It is thought of, as a fairly challenging career which requires persistence and determination. Nursing profession has dramatically evolved throughout the years from mere environmental care, and symptomatic approach to a wholistic approach to patient care. Over and above their technical function nurses are expected to do complicated tasks; such as (i) updating and using relevant knowledge; (ii) organizing, planning and prioritizing work; (iii) identifying objects, actions and sequence of events; (iv) making decisions and solving problems; (v) performing for/or working directly with the public; (vi) communicating with various people from various stature of life; and (vii) establishing and maintaining interpersonal relationships to various persons. Nurses moreover, are known to be a critical thinker, they acquire fair interpersonal skills especially when dealing with their clientele and their significant others, and they must possess a strong background in science or mathematics.

Within the context of Philippine society, nursing education, with caring as its foundation, subscribes to the following core values which are vital components in the development of professional nurse and are therefore emphasized in the bachelor of science in nursing (BSN) program these are; (a) love of God; (2) Caring as a core of nursing; (i) compassion; (ii) competence; (iii) confidence; (iv) conscience; (v) commitment; (c) love of people with emphasis on respect for dignity of each person regardless of creed, color, gender and political affiliation, and (d)0love of Country (CMO 14 s. 2009).

In the Philippine a graduate of the BSN program is expected to demonstrate beginning professional competencies and shall continue to assume responsibility for professional development and utilizes research findings in the practice of nursing. The following are key areas of nursing identified by the Commission on Higher Education (CHED) and the Board of Nursing (BON); (a) safe and quality nursing care; (b) management of resources and environment; (c) health education; (d) legal responsibility; (e) ethico-moral responsibility; (f) personal and professional development; (g) quality improvement; (h) research; (i) record management; (j) communication; and (k) collaboration and teamwork. (CMO.14s. 2009) To consider oneself as well prepared for the nursing profession, a nurse must pass the licensure examination given by the Professional Regulation Commission (PRC). And after passing the aforementioned examination, a nurse must practice nursing within the context of these core competencies. However, competencies may vary depending upon the employer, job title and area of specialization.

Registered nurses are the largest healthcare group internationally, numbering nearly 6.7 million with 2.2 million employed as nurses in the various fields of nursing (Taylor,2007). Nursing like other professions have sub-specialties that emerged as advancements in nursing care develop. The nursing fields may be classified according to the following; (a) Hospital or Institutional Nursing; (b) Public Health Nursing or Community Nursing; (c) Industrial or Occupational Health Nursing; (d) Private duty or special duty nurse; (e) nursing education; (f) military nursing; (g) school nursing; (h) clinic nursing and (i) independent nursing practice. Each of these fields of nursing have varied competencies that employers sought after. For example a private duty nurse is expected in their scope of practice to render independent nursing care, in hospital and/or private homes. They are also expected to administer medication, treatments, dressings and other nursing services with minimal supervisions but in collaboration with the attending physician. Moreover, private duty nurses are required to apply independent emergency measures to counteract adverse developments and notify the physician of the patient’s condition. A private duty nurse is therefore required to be skillful and knowledgeable on his duties and responsibilities to his/her clientele. In choosing a field in nursing it would be helpful enough to be aware of one’s strengths and weaknesses so that one could effectively perform the duties and answer the job requirements in a certain field of nursing.

In 2006, according to Department of Labor and Employment (DOLE) data total number of Filipino nurses employed between October 2011 and 2007 was 58,000 (fifty eight which represented 3.86% of the total employed professional workers (1.5 million) reflected in the National Statistics Office, Labor Force Survey as source of data. However, it is important to consider that there is actually a market slowdown starting 2006, when the demand for Filipino nurses started plateau as a result of the retrogression in the US market and a change of nursing employment policy in the UK. The previous high demand for Filipino nurses has kept our nursing pool in the country relatively large. Despite the number of nurse reportedly depolyed/employed there is still is a slow-down in the hiring of newly passed nurses. While this fact, the actual unemployment and underemployment figures would only range to about 80,000 and the developments in the international job markets remain to be bright and still promising.

The increase in the number of graduate nurses offers slim opportunity for nurses to be employed in the hospital and/ or health care facility. However, there are number of employment opportunity, graduate nurses are now employed in various setting, from Business Productive Outsourcing (BPO) or call center agents, real estate agents, trainers and even in the PNP. And many of the unfortunate takers would plunged into entering into the PNP for employment and for those graduate nurses fortunate enough to pass the licensure examination would find solitude and security in the PNP, primarily because of the security of the job and the increase in the demand for PNP nowadays.

Nurse’s competencies. Baccalaureate nursing students receive basic nursing education and continue to build competency in practice settings after graduation. Nursing students today face great challenges. Society demands analytic, critical, reflective and transformative attitudes from graduates. It also demands that institutions of higher education take the responsibility to encourage students, through academic work, to acquire knowledge and skills that meet the needs of the modern workplace, which favors highly skilled and qualified workers.

Developing meaningful competency requirements for registered muses continues to confound the profession. The challenge it presents for healthcare regulators is learning how to objectively measure competencies across various settings, specialties, yeas of experience and geographic regions. According to Oppewal et al. (2006), core competencies have been developed in different specialty areas, but even nurses' awareness and implementation of such standards vary. The National Council of State Boards of Nursing (NCSBN) has worked, through their committees of Research and Practice, Regulation, and Education, to develop a program to transition graduate nurses into the professional nurses; this program has been a culmination of research and defines the needs of new nurses. Spector and Li (2007) discuss this ongoing research that is being completed to assess the design of this program.

The definition of each competency defines the expectations for all professional nurses of the future. The Knowledge, Attitudes and Skills( KAS) grids are the minimal expectations for initial nursing practice following completion of a pre-licensure professional nursing educational program.

The nursing council of Hong Kong (2004), has their own particular core competencies that provides lifelong holistic care, promotes health, enhances the quality of life and enables human development. Hong Kong is focused with the availability of qualified and competent health care professionals emphasizing them as the key to delivery of quality health care services. Giving a major emphasis on nurses who plays a pivotal role in the promotion, maintenance and restoration of health, Hong Kong aims to develop competent nurses who are able to take up extended and expended roles in the delivery of primary, secondary and tertiary nursing care.

Nursing as defined by nursing council of Hong Kong (NCHK ) is "a caring, enabling, knowledge-based and competence-assessed profession which is dynamic in meeting the changing health needs of the society. It is committed to promoting and maintaining health; as well as to caring for the sick and the disabled as individuals, or in families, groups, institutions, home settings and in the community. The practice of nursing is client-focused and evidence-based. It is carried out at the primary, secondary and tertiary levels of health care. It functions through problem solving and collaboration with the client as well as other health care professionals to define and achieve mutually agreed health goals. The provision of holistic, client-centered care requires research-based professional knowledge and skills through the implementation of the nursing process; the adoption of a caring and responsible attitude; effective communication and interpersonal skill as well as ethical principles."

The NCHK has 5 competence areas: Professional, Legal and Ethical Nursing Practice , Health Promotion and Health Education, Management and Leadership, Research , and Personal Effectiveness and Professional Development. The quality of care is maintained through the enhancement of professional competencies via continuous nursing education.

The Oregon Nurse Leadership Council Education Committee (2005) along with Oregon State Board of Nursing (OSBN), also provided an outline of the Core Competencies for the Nurse, Practical Nurse and Nursing Assistive Personnel. These core competencies are premised under 3 goals which are: Use a common definition of nursing to provide the framework for articulation of the nursing competencies required by all levels of nursing.; Articulate the competencies for nursing at all levels within Oregon health care systems today and over the next decade; and Use these competencies to guide the structure and outcome of the education of the registered nurse, practical nurse, and associated assistive personnel throughout the state. OSBN in particular generalizes the competencies and is applicable to several practices under the profession. The goal of the ONLC Education committee when preparing the document was to outline the competencies needed by a team of nursing professionals in order to meet the healthcare needs of Oregonians. It is based on a single definition of nursing and encompasses competencies for the nurse, practical nurse and nursing assistive personnel. As such, these competencies are intended to promote an expectation of high quality educational outcomes focused on improved patient care, as well as a high degree of flexibility for students within the academic environment.

In the Philippine setting the Board of Nursing in April of 2001, along with Commission on Higher Education Technical Committee on Nursing Education created a committee on Core Competency Standards Development, its primary goal is to develop the competency standards for nursing practice in the Philippines. This is based on Article 3 Sec. 9 (c) of R.A. 9173 known as the "Philippine Nursing Act of 2002" stating that the Board shall monitor and enforce quality standards of nursing practice necessary to ensure the maintenance of efficient, ethical and technical, moral and professional standards in the practice of nursing taking into account the health needs of the nation. After tedious work they have identified 11 core competency standard for nursing practice (2005) which includes: Safe and quality nursing care, Management of resources and environment, Health education, Legal responsibility, Ethico-moral responsibility, Personal and professional development, Quality improvement, Research, Record Management , Communication, and Collaboration and teamwork. Thus, according to CHED Memorandum Order No. 14 Series of 2009 article I, upon completion of a BSN programs institutions should produce nursing graduates that are professionally competent and would be ready to assume responsibility for professional development and are ready to use researches while practicing the profession. The CMO 14 provides 11 key areas of responsibilities that a nurse should demonstrate to display her competence, otherwise known as the 11 core competencies. These core competencies are necessary in transforming nursing graduates to professional nurses.

The competency standards will serve as a unifying framework for nursing education, regulation and practice. This can also be a guideline in developing test syllabus for entrants into the nursing profession, guide in developing a nursing curriculum, basis for advanced nursing practice and specialization, tool for performance evaluation among nurses, protection of public from incompetent practitioners, and yardstick for unethical and unprofessional practice of nursing.

By achieving competence, nurses can expand their range of nursing skills and provide patients with confident care. In the health care setting, competency is more than knowledge. It includes the understanding of knowledge, clinical, technical, and communication skills, and the ability to solve problems (Norman, 1985). Competencies are used to create unique standards within disciplines and specialties. According to Verma (2006), "competencies in education create an environment that fosters empowerment, accountability, and performance evaluation, which is consistent and equitable. The acquisition of competencies can be through talent, experience, or training."

Miller, et. al. (1988) suggest there are two senses in which competence can be defined. The first is competence equating to performance, which is the ability to perform nursing tasks, and the second is competence as a ‘psychological construct.’ that is, the ability to effectively integrate cognitive, affective and psychomotor skills when delivering nursing care. In 2003, the Institute of Medicine (IOM) issued a report, The Education of Health Care Professionals: a bridge to Quality, in which professional competency was viewed as a shared responsibility of both the public and private sectors. The IOM report recommended that all professional boards move toward requiring licensed health care professionals to periodically demonstrate their ability to deliver care within five competencies. These career encompassing competencies are (1) deliver patient centered care, (2) be members of an interdisciplinary team, while emphasizing (3) evidence-based practice, (4) quality improvement, and (5) informatics (IOM, 2003). To summarize, competence in nursing practice is complex and involves cognitive and kinesthetic aspects. Conceptually, it is more than just passing an exam or test. It involves action and demonstration of both the physical and cognitive skills used by nurses in the practice environment.

The Philippine National Police (PNP). The PNP is the civilian national police force of the Philippines. The passage into law on December 13, 1990 of Republic Act No. 6975 entitled "An Act Establishing the Philippine National Police under a reorganized Department of the Interior and Local Government and Other Purposes" as amended by RA 8551, the Philippine National Police Reform and Reorganization Act of 1998 and further amended by RA 9708 ended the existence of the Philippine Constabulary and the Integrated National Police and gave way to the creation of the Philippine National Police, now known as the country's police force that is national in scope and civilian in character. It is administered and controlled by the National Police Commission. With the effectivity of Republic Act No. 8551, otherwise known as the "Philippine National Police Reform and Reorganization Act of 1998," the PNP was envisioned to be a community and service oriented Agency.

As mandated by law, the PNP activated/created the Internal Affairs Service (IAS) on a national scope on June 1, 1999. It is an organization within the structure of the PNP and one of its tasks is to help the Chief, PNP institute reforms to improve the image of the police force through assessment, analysis and evaluation of the character and behavior of the PNP Personnel. It is headed by the Inspector General. The PNP has the following branches included the following organizations. Its national headquarters are based at Camp Crame in Quezon City.

Its philosophy is service, honor and justice. Its prime responsibility is to secure the country and its citizenry. Its mission is to enforce the law, prevent and control crimes, maintain peace and order, and ensure public safety and internal security with the active support of the community. Guided by its core values that revolves around being (a) maka Diyos (God fearing); (b) makabayan (nationalistic); (c) makatao (humane) and (d) makakalikasan (environment friendly), the PNP performs varied functions besides from law enforcement; maintenance of peace and order, they also prevents and investigate crimes and bring offenders to justice; exercise the vested powers from the Philippine Constitution and pertinent laws; detain an arrested person; implements pertinent laws and regulations on firearms and explosives control and supervises and control the training and operations of security agencies. (www.pnp.gov.ph). As its organization focuses on serving the people, the PNP activated and created an Internal Affairs Services on a national scope, whose tasks is to help the chief, PNP institute reforms to improve the image of the police force through assessment, analysis and evaluation of the character and behavior of the PNP personnel. These branches are the commissioned officer and the non- commissioned officers, each of these branches have independent and collaborative function to ensure quality service to the citizenry.

The main duties of PNP uniformed personnel are to patrol, traffic and investigate. Patrol is considered the backbone of the police service. It is one of the main reasons why police organizations exist. Police officers have the duty to go around a populated area for purposes of security and observation. They have to go out by foot or in motor vehicles in crime prone areas within their respective beats to look for and apprehend criminals or law violators or to respond to citizens under threat or calling for assistance. Most often, they must show themselves to the public, to let them know that the police officers are there to help or secure the premises. In conducting patrols, the officers intermingle and work with the general populace. The synergy between the police and the community is a primary factor in effective crime protection.

One of the perennial problems plaguing the country each year is the worsening traffic conditions, especially in urban areas. A study made by the Asian Development Bank states that the Philippines is losing 2.3 Billion pesos per year due to traffic and its incremental costs such as rising fuel consumption, loss of manpower and time, efficiency ratios, among others. Hence, proper traffic implementation by members of the PNP will greatly affect and improve our economy. PNP officers are therefore expected to perform the following tasks with a high degree of efficiency and expertise: a. Strictly enforce traffic laws and regulations; b. Direct and control traffic pursuant to the Traffic Code of the Philippines; c. Respond appropriately to traffic accidents and other emergencies; d. Prevent car thefts (Anti-car napping activities); e. Exhibit proficiency in use of equipment and resources; f. Use proper grammar, syntax as well as provide factual, accurate and detailed information when writing incident reports.

Crime investigation is one of the basic functions of the PNP. It is imperative that every member of this organization should know the meaning and purpose of investigation and the importance of taking the right step at the start of the investigation. New members of the police force should be exposed to the activities on the investigation in order to learn sufficient knowledge of handling cases. Investigation is a deliberate activity to look for, among others, the answers as to who, why, and how of a crime, event or accident. Investigators are usually absent when crimes occur; hence they have to follow procedures and methods to arrive at a clear picture of the incident and to undertake actions that should result in the solution of the case.

The PNP based on its mandate conducts investigation in order to identify the suspect, to locate his whereabouts and to provide evidence of his guilt. The activity combines practical and scientific approaches in gathering facts and evidences needed for a successful prosecution of the case against a suspect.

In crime investigation, a PNP officer is expected to perform the following tasks with a high degree of efficiency and expertise: a. Develop an analytical and inquisitive mind needed for crime investigation activities; b. Implement proper and correct procedure in crime scene processing; c. Exhibit a professional and accurate technique when identifying and interviewing suspects; d. Expeditiously identify and locate suspects through evidence analysis; e. Use proper grammar, syntax as well as provide factual, accurate and detailed information when writing police reports or affidavits or during blotter entry; f. Apply his knowledge of Revised Penal Code, statutes, Rules of Court, and other significant jurisprudence in the conduct of his responsibilities and tasks. Thus, police officers should know the basic principles, concepts, procedures and methods of investigation.

A police officer is one of these individuals who have a tremendous impact over the lives of ordinary citizens. It can be said that in Philippine system of criminal justice, the initial decision makers are the police. In addition to being the enforcers of the law, they have the power to define what constitutes lawbreaking.. Furthermore, they possess the power to decide whether or not to use deadly force, giving them the power of life and death in some circumstances. No other public figure possesses greater authority over the personal destiny of people. A police officer, in one split second, may act as prosecutor, judge and executioner. In many day-to-day decisions, police hold a great deal of decision-making power over people’s lives, because of their authority to enforce the law (http://pnppro10.org/index.php).

Police Officers are seen to be role models. They are held in very high regard by society.. August Vollmer (recognized as the Father of Police Professionalism) articulated the expectations of the people of the community from policemen. He said that "The average citizen expects the police officer to have the wisdom of Solomon, the courage of David, the strength of Samson, the patience of Job, the leadership of Moses, the faith of Daniel, the diplomacy of Lincoln, the tolerance of the Carpenter of Nazareth, the kindness of the Good Samaritan, and finally, an intimate knowledge of every branch of natural, biological, and social sciences. If he possesses all these qualities, then, he MIGHT be a good policeman."

The police view themselves as society's protectors: dedicated professionals who risk their lives, sacrifice time with their families, work nights and weekends, all out of a sense of devotion to the profession and service to the community (http://pnppro10.org/index.php).

According to Wilson (1968) "It is not money, or organization that defines the policeman's job, it is the job that defines the policeman". Also, according to Manning and van Maanen observed (1978) "Policing is more than a job; it is a way of life." In short, what makes cops different from non- police is the job itself. In many countries around the world, police agencies face enormous challenges in countering crime, disorder, and terrorism. Deterring threats to peace and order demand all-out campaigns that combine tested strategies and methods of investigation, intelligence, police-community relations, and police support in the conduct of internal security operations (http://www.hss.de/fileadmin/suedostasien/PNP-Guidebook_Human-Rights.PDF.).

In order to become a police officer, certain policies and procedure need to be observe to ensure that PNP personnel are well screened and knows the nature of their tasks, it is in this line that the PNP have a standard procedure for recruitment and selection of uniformed personnel. General qualifications for appointment must possesses the following minimum qualifications: (i) a citizen of the Philippines; (ii) of good moral character; (iii) must have passed the psychiatric/psychological, drug and physical tests to be admitted by the PNP or by any NAPOLCOM accredited government hospital for the purpose of determining physical and mental health; (iv) must possess formal baccalaureate degree from a recognized institution of learning; (v) must be eligible in accordance with the standards set by NAPOLCOM; (vi) must not have been dishonorably discharged from military employment or dismissed for a cause of any civilian position in the government; (vii) must be at least one meter and sixty two centimeters in height for male and one meter and fifty-seven centimeters in female; (viii) must weight not more than five kilograms form the standard height corresponding to his/her height, age, sex and; (ix) for new applicant must not be less than 21 years old and more than 39 years of age. Aside from the basic requirement; there are other requirement must be taken by an applicant, these include; (a) preliminary interview that covers the applicant personal history; (b) physical agility test which is designed to determine whether or not he possesses the required coordination, strength and speed of movement necessary for service; (c) psychological and/or neuro-psychiatric test given by the PNP, NBI or any duly accredited institution; (d) character and background investigation; (e) physical and mental examination and the (f) final interview. It is due to this tight screening procedure, PNP personnel are presumed to be of their best ability to carry out the functions of a police officer (NAPOLCOM, 2008).

The police as guardian of the citizenry are expected to be guided by the core values of the PNP. Further, they are evaluated in terms of their services under four (4) major core competencies, namely; (a) job knowledge, (b) work management; (c) inter-personal relationship and (d) concern for the organization. These core competencies are the tools for the promotion of PNP uniformed personnel. Moreover, these core competencies can also be found in the nursing profession here in the country. The commonality of nursing and PNP is the promise of protection to their clientele.

In the Australian community, the police are in a unique position to not only obtain and provide information about reported domestic and family violence, but to have an impact on such violence through their response, intervention and prevention strategies-based police work at the coalface of domestic and family violence incidents, although it is acknowledged that most incidents are not reported to police (Holder & Caruana, 2006: 57).

Police are often the first point of contact, it is vital that the police response is timely, appropriate and effective. This is important for ensuring victims receive the care and support that they need, minimizing further harm and encouraging a willingness to report to and cooperate with police. It is also important for ensuring offenders are dealt with appropriately and quickly, minimizing their capacity to further re-offend and delivering and reinforcing the messages that offending behavior will not be tolerated and that police will act swiftly.

The policing of family violence has undergone a fundamental shift in recent years. Since the beginning of the 1980s, when police did not consider policing of family and domestic violence to be part of their job (Newbold & Cross, 2008), to recent times when legislative changes and pro-arrest mandates across many western countries including Australia (NSW Ombudsman, 2006), New Zealand (Newbold & Cross, 2008), the US (Friday et al., 2006) and the UK (Applegate, 2006) have forced changes in practice in the policing of family violence incidents. In Victoria, Australia the Code of practice for the investigation of family violence was introduced in 2004. It focuses on improved collection of evidence, investigation and laying charges where appropriate. The introduction of this code appears to have increased the number of charges laid in family violence incidents and the proportion of family violence incidents in which charges were laid.

In the Philippines, various special forces had been created by the government to attend to special cases such as confidential issues of violence against women and children and other police matters that are basically sensitive in nature; of which the female PNP uniformed personnel are designated is the women’s desk, that primarily aims to assists women and children who are into an abusive situation. The women’s desk was created under the Republic Act No. 9262 which is known to be an act defining violence against women and their children, providing for protective measures for victims, prescribing penalties therefore, and for other purposes. And despite the increasing number of BSN prepared PNP uniformed personnel, they are not fortunate to be deployed in this special force. Some of those who are assigned in this special force are graduates of other course; like engineering, commerce, business administration. The edge of the nurse over other profession is their preparedness to respond to the psychological and/or emotional stresses brought about by the devastating situation that they had undergone. More so, nurse are equipped with the skills of interpersonal relationships, as nurses could deal to both mentally stable and unstable, as part of their training and preparation in the BSN course.

Another special force created in the PNP is the crime lab in the form of Scene of the Crime Operatives (SOCO), whose prime task is to provide scientific investigation services and other technical support to PNP officers and other investigative agencies through fieldwork, scene of crime operations, forensic laboratory services, criminalistics and research. Their responsibility covers from scientific investigation through forensic examination of all physical evidences. More, it methodically collect and transport all available physical evidences from the crime scene and the PNP Crime Laboratory for purposes of appropriate forensic examination. It is in the field of criminal laboratory that would best fit a PNP who had been prepared in the BSN course, as the critical competencies of nursing would help them become excellent crime laboratory personnel.

Both the PNP and the nurse shares competencies that are critical in their field and would require them to become experts in any field; for example both of them shares the competencies in their job knowledge, both profession shares the planning and decision making, implementation of instruction, community oriented services, creativity and resourcefulness, and communicating with the team. Another similar competencies that the PNP and the nurses’ share is work management skills; both the of them must be able to manage their record efficiently and effectively and keeping in mind confidentiality, the compliance with the implementing policies are also critical in their services; so as cost effectiveness are also best seen in the two (2) profession. As to the interpersonal relationship, it is essential for the nurse to acquire such skill to be able to render quality care to their patient; for the PNP uniformed personnel, it is also essential in their profession to be able to effectively deal with inter and intra-agencies to resolve issues and concern pertaining to the investigation of current crimes that needs to be resolved. Another similar competency of the nurse and the PNP is their concern for the organization.

In the study conducted by Samuels (2000), it was found that cases of police misconduct and measured how seriously officers regarded police corruption, how willing they were to support its punishment, and how willing they were to report it. The survey found substantial differences in the environments of integrity among the agencies studied. The more serious the officers considered a behavior to be, the more likely they were to believe that more severe discipline was appropriate, and the more willing they were to report a colleague for engaging in that behavior. This means that despite strict evaluation in the police some of them have certain frustration in the institution (Samuels, 2000).

Most police, and community members, when confronted with a problem immediately turn to notions of deterrence and incapacitation. Only when these fail to adequately address the problem, often failing repeatedly, do the police and the public explore something new. Yet, to most police, and their publics, it is not immediately clear what the alternative is. In the United States, when alternatives are presented they often take the form of some method for reforming prospective or existing offenders — reaching out to disaffected youth, providing anti-drug education, managing sport and recreation opportunities for teens, and similar programs designed to thwart the development of criminal propensities (Eck, 2003). With the current studies on nursing in the police force, including their tasks and their ability to resolve criminal offenses and cases. The forensic nursing came to be.

Victims of violence and abuse require care from a health professional who is trained to treat the trauma associated with the wrong that has been done to them-be it sexual assault, interpersonal violence, neglect, or other forms of intentional injury. Forensic nurses are also a critical resource for anti-violence efforts. They collect evidence and give testimony that can be used in a court of law to apprehend or prosecute perpetrators who commit violent and abusive acts.

Mason et al. (2010) study on forensic psychiatric nursing: skill and competencies role dimensions revealed that a larger difference was noted between nurses' perceptions and other disciplines' perceptions of the constituent parts to forensic psychiatric nursing. Nurses tended to focus on personal qualities both in relation to themselves and the patients, while the other disciplines focused on organizational structures both in defining the role and in the resolution of perceived deficits. Their findings have implications for multidisciplinary working, as well as policy formulation and curriculum development in terms of the skills and competencies of forensic nurse training. In a similar study (Caulifield, 2010) regarding the perceptions of diagnostic labels in forensic psychiatric practice; shows that the results indicate that there are statistically significant differences within both nursing and non-nursing groups and also between the groups in relation to a "management" perspective for individuals labeled with a personality disorder and a "clinical" focus for individuals who are labeled as mentally ill.

A forensic nurse is a nurse who provides specialized care for patients who are victims and/or perpetrators of trauma (both intentional and unintentional). Forensic Nurses are nurses first and foremost. However, the specialized role of forensic nurses goes far beyond medical care; forensic nurses also have a specialized knowledge of the legal system and skills in injury identification, evaluation and documentation. After attending to a patient’s immediate medical needs, a forensic nurse often collects evidence, provides medical testimony in court, and consults with legal authorities (International Association of Forensic Nurses).

Forensic psychiatric nurses work with individuals who may evoke feelings of empathy as well as feelings of disgust, repulsion, and fear. The main objective of Jacob’s theoretical paper is to engage the nurses in a theoretical reflection regarding the concepts of abjection and fear since they both apply to the experiences of caring for mentally ill individuals in forensic psychiatric settings (Jacob, 2007) Moreover, acknowledging that patients may evoke feelings of disgust, repulsion, and fear is essential if nurses wish to understand the implications of these emotions in the therapeutic process. In forensic psychiatric settings, caring for so-called "monsters" in the face of abjection and fear is not an easy task to achieve given the lack of theoretical understanding regarding both concepts. Given the actual state of knowledge in forensic nursing, we argue that theoretical (conceptual) analyses, as well as ethical and political discussions, are paramount if we wish to understand the specificities of this complex field of nursing practice.

Forero (2009) in his study noted that a growing body of evidence suggests that the performance of police officers depends on individual dispositions. Although predictive studies of police performance using personality measures often focus on academy training, in this study the authors fitted a longitudinal structural equation model to examine the predictive validity of the training process for actual performance after graduation.

Forensic nursing had caught the attention of numerous nurses as it has become a field of interest by some nurses as their field of specialization. A forensic nurse is one who is equipped with specialized training in forensic evidence collection, criminal procedures, legal testimony expertise. They act as a liaison between the medical profession and the criminal justice system. The combination of medical training of a nurse, equipped with the investigative prowess of police detectives and the legal training of a lawyer, you have created a formidable enemy for criminals (Lillis, 2009). Most forensic nurses work out of a hospital the first point of contact and the emergency room is the setting where evidences are gathered. Trying to accurately assess a patient can be difficult enough, but toss in the chaos of a typical emergency room and the things can really go down the hill. Forensic nursing can also expand outside the world of criminal investigation. After the devastation of hurricane Katrina in the US, identification of some of the remains was done through the use of forensic evidence collection (Ledrey, 2009). Here in the Philippine the devastating typhoons Reming, Ondoy and Sendong who has taken the lives of many had depended much on crime laboratories to be able to identify the remains of the victims of such disaster. The difficulty lies in the fact that each region in the country has only one (1) crime laboratory. To make matters worst, only very few PNP uniformed personnel are trained to identify, prioritize and secure possible evidence related to the possible identification of the victim.

Nurses as part of the Crime Investigation Team. The role of emergency nurses in the recognition, collection and preservation of forensic evidence is established more knowledge of their role and responsibilities is needed. In addition departmental and organisational policy and the need for more specific educational preparation in this area have to be developed. The emergency nurse must be proactive in recognising that any patient admitted to the emergency room with potential liability-related injuries, whether victim or victimiser, living or dead, is a clinical forensic patient (Lynch, 1995). Collecting forensic evidence is necessary, not only for the legal implications but also for the outcome of response to the traumatic events for the victim. However, there is no existing policy related to forensic evidence collection in the Emergency Department (ED). There is an upcoming change in all kind of training and education programs are offered and in development by universities and high schools in Forensic Science. This is occurring because of TV programs like CSI (USA) and Silent Witness (UK). There is still none for the "living patient". Those patients were well treated (in a technical way, including good evidence collection) but only a few of them had follow-ups by the police medical examiner, detectives, outpatient units or other health/victim care agencies (Piet, 2008).

An important skill for an emergency nurse concerning forensic evidence collection is the recognition that evidence may exist. The ER nurse is the first to see the patient, the first to talk to the family, first to handle the potential evidence; therefore, it is essential that ER nurse becomes proactive in collecting forensic evidence. Evidence collection needs to be done during primary assessment but should never compromise the vital signs. A role of the ER nurse is to be aware of their prime position in collecting evidence which later may be used for forensic investigation. The life, health, and safety of each patient are, however, of higher priority than forensic considerations (ENA, 2003). Another role of ER nurses is that they can refer clients to authorities.

The emergency nurse is in the unique position to make the "story complete." Most trauma charts include a body map page where the charter can document visible injuries. (LindaMcCracken, 2003). Visual material is better that the spoken word. Visual material doesn't forget or stretch the truth. "A photograph continues to testify from the moment it is put into evidence until the verdict is rendered" (LindaMcCracken, 2003). While trauma team members are performing the initial assessment of the patient and intervening in any life-threatening injuries that they come upon, one nurse, with a camera in hand, can take quick shots of patterned injuries and/or identifying markings such as tattoos should the patient be unidentified. During the log-rolling of the patient, to `inspect the back' for injuries, that same nurse can attain photos of abrasions, contusions, stab wounds or other injures before the patient is log-rolled back to a supine position (LindaMcCracken, 2003). Photographing injuries does not delay patient care, nor does it delay documentation.

The preservation and collection of evidence are skills that important in the process of examination and investigation. The first step in the collection of forensic evidence is the ability to recognise the clients’ populations that require it. Clients who are victims, survivors, suspects, or perpetrators of violence can be referred to the ED. It is important to consider the wide range of clients for whom this collection is needed. For example, motor vehicle crashes; attempted homicide or suicide; injuries involving firearms, knives or other weapons; accidents, including fires, falls or electrocution; work-related accidents; damaged or improperly used equipment; unidentified persons; poisonings, overdoses, or illegal drug use; assaults, sexual or nonsexual; public health hazards; anyone in police custody for any circumstance; or sudden, unexpected death (LindaMcCracken, 2003). The recognition of these clients is important, as rape and domestic violence are grossly under-reported. While examining and taking care of the wounds it is easy to ask more detailed questions. For the client it is less harmful to talk about the traumatic event when the questions are aimed at an objective focus.

SYNTHESIS

As shown by the literature and studies that were reviewed, the number of the competencies presented in different countries as compared to the competencies that are being practiced in the Philippines differ. They also differ as to whom the competencies are applied to. In Ontario the core competencies are applicable to Nurse, Practical Nurse and Nursing Assistive Personnel showing that these professions are in the same hierarchy as compared to Hong Kong which showed that the competencies would only be applicable to Registered Nurses in general. However, the studies reviewed show that almost all the competencies are founded on skills, knowledge, and attitude; constructed by the regulatory body that regulates the nursing practice in the particular country; and easy to evaluate, understand and apply to the nursing profession.

The review of related literature reveals the promising opportunity for nurses in the Philippine National Police. In the study of Samuels (2000) it was found that cases of police misconduct and measured how seriously officers regarded police corruption, how willing they were to support its punishment, and how willing they are to report it. The survey found substantial differences in the environment of integrity among the agencies studied. The more serious the officers considered a behavior to be, the more likely they were to believe that more severe discipline was appropriate, and the more willingness they were to report a colleague for engaging in that behavior. This means that despite strict evaluation in the police some of them have certain frustration in the institution.

Most police and community members, when confronted with a problem immediately turn to notions of deference and incapacitation. Only when these fail to adequately address the problem, often failing repeatedly, do the police and the public explore something new. Yet, most police and their publics, it is not immediately clear what the alternative is. In the United States, when alternatives are presented they often take the form of some method for reforming prospective or existing offenders—reaching out to disaffected youth, providing anti-drug education, managing sport and recreation opportunities for teens, and similar programs designed to thwart the development of criminal propensities, (Eck, 2003). With the current studies on nursing in the police force, including their tasks and their ability to resolve criminal offenses and cases. The forensic nursing came to be. Mason et.al (2010) study on forensic psychiatric nursing: skill and competencies role dimensions revealed that a larger difference was noted between nurses’ perceptions and other disciplines’ perceptions of the constituent parts to forensic psychiatric nursing. Nurses tended to focus on personal qualities both in relation to themselves and the patients, while the other disciplines focused on organizational structures both inn defining the role and in resolution of perceived deficits. Their findings have implications for multidisciplinary working, as well as policy formulation and curriculum development in terms of the skills and competencies of forensic nurse training. In a similar study (Caulifield, 2010) regarding the perceptions of diagnostic labels in forensic psychiatric practice; shows that the result indicated that there are statistically significant difference between within both nursing and non- nursing groups and also between the groups in relation to the "management" perspective for individuals labeled with a personality with a personality disorder and a "clinical" focus for individuals who are labeled as mentally ill.

Most of the study dealt with the capacity of nurses to handle forensic investigation, utilizing their core competencies which they have learned in their BSN education. Based form the literature and study gathered, the researcher found out that there is very limited studies conducted about nurses employed as PNP uniformed personnel and their capabilities to handle forensic investigation and cases. This is the gap that this study hopes to bridge.

STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM

This study looked into the possible formulation of a program that would assess the capability of the nurses in the PNP to be trained as a forensic nurse. Specifically it will sought answer to the following sub-problems.

What are the competencies of a nurse in terms of the following 11 key areas stipulated in the CHED memo no. 14:

a. Safe and quality nursing care

b. Management of Resources and Environment

c. Health education

d. Legal Responsibility

e. Ethico- Moral responsibility

f. Personal and Professional Development

g. Quality Improvement

h. Research

i. Records Management

j. Communication

k. Collaboration of Teamwork

2. What are the competencies of PNP uniformed personnel in terms of:

a. Job Knowledge,

b. Work Management,

c. Interpersonal Relationship, and

d. Concern for the Organization?

3. What are the common competencies between the nurse and the PNP uniformed personnel?

4. What are the competencies of the BSN prepared PNP uniformed personnel that need to be enhanced?

5. What are the work performances of the BSN prepared PNP and the non- BSN prepared PNP uniformed personnel?

6. What is the significant difference in the work performance between the BSN prepared PNP and the non- BSN prepared PNP uniformed personnel?

7. What training program may be proposed to enhance work performance of the BSN prepared PNP uniformed personnel?

The null hypothesis that there is no significant difference in the work performance between the BSN prepared PNP and the non- BSN prepared PNP uniformed personnel was tested at 0.5 level of significance.

THEORETICAL FRAMEWORK/CONCEPTUAL FRAMEWORK

Certain jobs in an organization require certain competencies from employees. The competencies of the employees would ensure their effective or superior performance in their current and future jobs. Employees need to have the knowledge and skills necessary for them to successfully perform their jobs. They must also have competencies that would enable them to develop new functional competencies and to create their career identity by gaining insight into their own possibilities and motives and proactively translate these insights into concrete actions that can direct their career.

Since organizations and their environment constantly change, it is necessary for employees to create their own career success by continuously fulfilling, acquiring or creating work through the optimal use of their own competencies (Van der Heijde & Van der Heijden, 2006). As such, employees should continuously invest in the development of their competencies (Scholarios, et al., 2008) and for organizations to focus on the continuous development of their employees’ competencies. Forrier, Sels and Stynen (2009) define competency development as: "an important feature of competency management which encompasses all activities carried out by the organization and the employee to maintain or enhance the employee’s functional, learning and career competencies". Although training and formal education have proven to be effective in competency development however there are other practices in the organization which might stimulate competency development (Nybo, 2004).

The conceptual framework of this study verified how certain variables affect the competencies of the nurses and PNP. The competencies for nurses outlined in this study build upon the core competencies stipulated in CMO 14 s. 2009 while those of the PNP uniformed personnel are based from their own mandate. The only competencies included here are unique to and differentiate the essential knowledge, skills and attitudes of nurse and PNP uniformed personnel. Additionally, the BSN-prepared PNP uniformed personnel and the non-BSN prepared PNP uniformed personnel possess common competencies. These competencies help the BSN-prepared PNP uniformed personnel to have a performance comparable to the non-BSN prepared PNP uniformed personnel. Moreover, the study looked into the common competencies of nursing and the PNP but much focus was given into the advantage of the PNP. Further, this study looked into the PNP competencies that can be enhanced, particularly for those who are BSN graduates, to be able to utilize them in crime investigation and facilitation of evidences. Thus, a training program was proposed as a measure to enhance the competencies of BSN graduates who are employed as PNP uniformed personnel.

Competencies of a PNP personnel

Competencies of a nurse

Common

Competencies

Competencies that needs to be enhanced

Proposed Program

Figure 1

Conceptual Model of the Study

HYPOTHESIS/ASSUMPTIONS

The study was conceptualized based on the following assumptions:

By defining core competencies, the organization can align the necessary organizational competencies with the individual competencies present among employees.

The core competencies reflect the generic competencies that every employee of the organization has to possess.

The core competencies clearly indicate what the organization stands for

Training would lead to the desired level of competency.

The process of competency development leads to a new set of functional, learning and career competencies.

Increased efficiency, effectiveness and productivity are outcomes of competency development.

SCOPE AND DELIMITATIONS OF THE STUDY

This study focused on the PNP uniformed personnel and nurses’ competencies in the Bicol region. These PNP uniformed personnel may either be registered nurses, non-registered and graduate of different baccalaureate degree. Moreover, this study dealt on the basic competencies expected from a PNP uniformed personnel upon their completion of their basic training and so with the nurses.

The respondents for this study were the registered nurses, assigned as PNP uniformed personnel; non-register nurses including those graduates of other baccalaureate degree; such as but not limited to engineering, education, business administration, criminology and political science who had been deployed in the PNP as uniformed personnel. Also the supervisors are critical respondents as they will evaluate the nurses who are employed as PNP uniformed personnel, to their capability to be a forensic nurse. Excluded from the study are those nurses who are assigned in the varied PNP hospitals. This study was conducted from March 2012 to May, 2012.

SIGNIFICANCE OF THE STUDY

It is hoped that the findings of this study would be significant to the following groups of individuals:

The Philippine Government. The result of this study would serve as an eye opener for the possibility of policy formulation and creation of a new PNP division that would focus on criminal investigation, especially in the far flung areas of the country.

The Philippine National Police. The findings of the study may serve as a basis for the PNP to better maximize the competence of BSN prepared PNP uniformed personnel in the discharge of their duties, roles and responsibilities by their deployment in units with functions that will closely match to their competencies.

The Department of Interior and Local Government. The findings of this research may be of benefit to the local government units if the PNP will enforce matching of the deployment of the BSN prepared PNP uniformed personnel, it is foreseen that services may significantly be enhanced. With this, the LGUs and their constituents will directly benefit from the enhanced services provided in the Policed-manned units in their locality.

Nurses. The findings of the study may be an eye opener for nurses to consider the PNP as one of the rewarding and challenging options for career opportunities as PNP uniformed personnel.

The Nursing Profession. The findings of the study may benefit the nursing profession in terms of the employment of nurses especially during this time that nurses in the Philippines have grown in number and yet employment opportunities as nurses have become slim and elusive local and global. It may also serve as a source of information and basis for the nursing leaders in both the academe and nursing service to develop trainings that match closely related functions in the PNP and other professions which will expand and enhance the competencies of BSN graduates. Hence, BSN graduates and even registered nurses may become priority among applicants in the PNP and AFP.

The PRC and BON. This study will inspire them to look upon the opportunity in the PNP as a promising venue for nurses to get employed and therefore create or maybe include in the competencies management of PNP units like women’s desk, criminal investigation, etc. as an area for electives in the BSN curriculum.

Future Researcher. This study may contribute to the dearth of literature on the performance and competence of the BSN-prepared PNP uniformed personnel. Thus, this study will serve as reference material and as basis for related studies. It may also open avenues for further students that are similar or related.

DEFINITION OF TERMS

BSN prepared PNP uniformed personnel are the PNP uniformed personnel who graduated BSN, who passed or may not passed the Nurse Licensure Examination. She/he is employed in the PNP as a regular member and function as a PNP and not as a nurse.

Competencies refer to a set of behaviors that encompasses skills, knowledge, abilities, and personal attributes that, taken together, are critical to successful work accomplishment. In this study, the term covers the knowledge, skills and attitude of both BSN prepared and Non-BSN prepared PNP uniformed personnel.

Core Competencies are the key areas of responsibility for which a nurse should demonstrate competence (CMO No. 14, 2009).

Non-BSN prepared PNP uniformed personnel are the PNP uniformed personnel who have not obtained a degree in nursing education and employed in the PNP as a regular member.

Nurse is a person educated and trained to care for the sick or disabled; a graduate of BSN degree and have passed the NLE.

Philippine National Police (PNP) is the government agency organized primarily with the responsibility for the maintenance of peace and order and public safety among all communities throughout the country and mandated to establish a highly efficient and competent police force to ensure accountability and uprightness in public exercise of discretion towards the attainment of efficiency and effectiveness in the performance of respective functions for work excellence.

PNP uniformed personnel are members of the police who are appointed by the President, as well as officers of the PNP from rank of inspector to Senior Superintendent, who shall have the power to administer oaths on matters which are connected with the performance of their official duties. Include officers and non-officers in the PNP assigned in the Bicol area. They are the respondents of the study.