Aldous Huxleys Book Brave New World Philosophy Essay

Mr. Krucko

HZT 4U1

Opposing Similar Views

A very intriguing situation has been set in Aldous Huxley’s book, Brave New World, which can be viewed as a perfect or a ruined world. This book is saturated with ideas, names, and philosophies that even an average mind would be able to pick out at least one of them even if they may not specifically know the name of the philosopher. Although there are many themes in Brave New World and many of them can be deeply analysed such as the Plato’s cave pertaining to the blindness of the Epsilon or Kierkegaard displayed in the Savage, the whole book is centralized around one major philosophy, Stalinism. The relation becomes clearer as the book progresses and even though Stalin was not in office during the time the book was published. However, there is a combating philosophy displayed by the Savage during the debate with Marx, Marxism. The differences between Marxism and other forms of communism (in this case, Stalinism) have been hugely overviewed to see which form was correct. Examining the differences between Stalinism and Marxism while comparing them to the debate between Marx and the Savage will help define humans as a community.

The book begins by explaining the society of the modern world. The assembly line style of reproduction, the class system, and the use of drugs (soma) and recreational sex to keep people happy was the basics of society and the totalitarian government, masking themselves using a positive image and powerful nationalism to justify their means of control. People are made perfect for their class. The protagonists are Lenina, the love interest, Bernard Marx, an outcast to his class, and Helmholtz Watson, a propaganda writer who seeks for more meaningful writing.

Bernard Marx and Lenina were going to New Mexico. During the trip they meet the Savage, an intelligent boy who learned much from books, and her mother. Marx and Lenina brought back the two to England. The people love the Savage and obsess about his mysteries. Lenina falls in love with him and Helmholtz finally finds inspiration for his writing. The Savage has a taste of the new world and is scared of it. Lenina takes off her clothes for him and for the first time is insulted from her way of life. He is insulted by the mistreatment of her mother as she passes away. He gets in trouble for being openly angered and is met up with Marx and Helmholtz on front of the head of the nation, Mustapha Mund.

They have a meeting for whether they will be sent to an island and Helmholtz and the Savage debate with Mund on the ideas of the government and religion. At first, they talk about the roles of the government and the people, how people are being repressed because of their status and how many of the workers are in agriculture for the industry. After Helmholtz was sent away, the Savage and Mund debated on the role of religion. Mund explained how religion is not necessary and it only ruins people, but the Savage said it provides necessary suffering. In the end, Marx and Helmholtz are sent to islands to be away from society because they did not follow the restrictions placed by Mund. The Savage is sent to a lighthouse and at first is left alone but then is seen and people crowed. The Savage, believing in sacrifice, joins in on the drugs and an orgy and regrets it and kills himself.

Stalinism is a system of government and a philosophy made by Joseph Stalin during the depression to post WWII. He developed a system of government based on Karl Marx so radical that many people believed it was much different from normal communism. To Stalin, the rule was totalitarian, a leader with ultimate control. Stalin’s idea of the perfect society was his society, where everything revolved around him, where people are in really defined classes. If a person is a worker, that person will not make much and the only way to make more is to be part of his government. To Stalin, only if you join him, you can become better. Stalin wanted to keep the bureaucracy in order to create a strong society. He believed that society must be strong and "power became more and more centralized in Stalin" ("Stalinism"). Stalin created a cult around him. He believed a rule that was highly repressive. The state was controlled through industry and agriculture. "Heavy industry was emphasized to ensure Russia’s future economic independence from its capitalist neighbours" ("Stalinism"). He did not care about the treatment of his workers. He has lots of men to spare. "Approximately twelve to fifteen million deaths were due the policy of farm collectivization" (Tobin). As long as things were for the betterment of Russia, anything is allowed. He will do anything, including terror on his own people, to be satisfied with what he desires.

Marxism was the first form of communism which is very revolutionary thought. It was designed by Karl Marx as a response to capitalism. It was a communism that was set to be fair to people, where nobody held property. No person was put ahead of others. In a sense, all people were given equal opportunity and will always be equal in shares involving land. People were free to learn and education was necessary for everybody. Everything was done to prevent disadvantages and to allow people to make the right decisions. Marxism was not about oppressing certain individuals because their potential is conflicting with their role in society. He did not like greedy people or anybody that will not let go of their wealth or people "who valued working people as sources of profit instead of human beings" ("sheets"). It destroys the equality that people have for each other and corrupts the mind. Greed is one of the first major behaviours in life that will build up to other negative behaviours. Marx saw this, and he knew other do too, and he knew people would not like it and act. Marx believed that change was inevitable and that the workers would eventually rise up to the greedy capitalists. The "workers, in their overwhelming superiority of numbers, would rise up against the capitalists" ("sheets") and the workers would commune together and build their own society. Marx believed that people would be happy with a "social ownership of wealth" ("sheets"). To Marx, things would happen naturally because nature would make it so. Marx added religion into the mix because he thought that people would need suffering.

Stalin can tie very similar to Mustafa Mund and Marx matches very well with the Helmholtz and the Savage. Mund is already a totalitarian ruler, which is the first point on how much Mund is like Stalin, but other things as well such as his oppression to the lower class (or at least an apparent oppression due to the fact that he uses eugenics to make the lower class physically different), no universal education, the propaganda, atheist values, and the cult around him. Mund was especially like Stalin was the mistreatment and generalization of workers. Stalin sees the lower class as scum. Mund would not like it one bit. When doing experiments, he says that "only Epsilons can make epsilon sacrifices" (Huxley 192). He never liked the Epsilons. Mund explains how he forces people to work "seven and a half hours of milk, unexhausting labour" (Huxley 197) and then gives them propaganda drugs to keep them happy. The cult built around a central figure is still present, where all the words that would be a "God" are Ford or Freud. His positive view of class system, how there is a hierarchy of people and the people below are less important and built less well. Mund continues this debate explaining how people are happier with religion and that people do not need religion. His atheistic ideas and how people do not need religion to experience suffering makes him very "Stalinistic".

The Savage and Helmholtz see it another way though. During the debate, they see that education should be available for all. He questions why reading is prohibited, why education is prohibited. He is angry at the fact that people are being changed for who they are before they are even born. He questions "Why don’t you make everyone Alpha Doubles" (Huxley 195). The Savage questions the equality placed by Mund. He heavily refuses Mund. The Savage always asks questions on why Mund does the things he does. The working conditions of them men who are being controlled through a very ‘soft terror’, the drugs and the ethics on religion are both the major topics of discussion between Mund and the Savage. Helmholtz has realized that he wants to be punished because the island has no strict government. Everybody can learn and think and everybody is fair unlike in England where there the lines are defined too much. He desired Marxism because of the over control of totalitarianism in England. The Savage heavily disagreed with the ethics of religion and inevitability. The Savage knows God helps people suffer, that God is "the reason for everything noble and fine and heroic" (Huxley 209). The Savage also thinks that God is natural, instinctive. He also mentions instinct when talking about the working conditions of the Epsilons. He calls them "awful work" (Huxley 197). He does not like the way the workers are being mistreated and knows they’re unhappy. He knows they might one day attack back.

For many years, people have been debating whether or not communism or democracy was correct. But this is not a communism versus democracy battle but a communism versus communism. Both forms are very much different from each other. Humans can understand their culture immediately when they hear the word "communist". They either hate it to your blood or are extremely happy to see some country folk. But for many years, communism was seen as a threat to the world and very scary. It was, but only the ones that did it wrong. Human culture knows how well people work and Marxist ideas seem to make people the happiest. Of all countries that seem like communist countries, Sweden is a surprising member. They are not communist, but their ideas came closest to Karl Marx. Sweden is the third happiest country in the world. Humans are always trying to find answers to happiness, and this is one huge example on how humans try to find it through the way they run their government. The world tends to lean towards Marx rather than Stalin, but they do not even know that is it communism.

The world is changing. Slowly, the world may look like that of Brave New World, and if it does, people will have to choose. Will the Savage, or the Ford himself, Mustafa Mund succeed. The Savages’ guidance with Marxism and Mund’s debate on Stalism caused a huge debate at the end of the book, which happens every day when dealing with communism. The world is changing, and people may be taking the lead to something they do not know is important. They want change and happiness, so if a scenario will have to happen, who will go behind the scenes and pluck the chickens.