# Theory Of Special Relativity Philosophy Essay

Albert Einstein was a German-born theoretical physicist who discovered the theory of general relativity and the one who bring in a new revolution in physics through his life time. Albert Einstein is often known as the father of modern physics where he received the 1921 Nobel Prize in Physics for his involvement to theoretical physics and the discovery of the law of photoelectric effect. His discovery include the greatest equation of all time, E= MC² where as "E" stand for Energy, "M" stand for mass, "C" stand for speed of light in a vacuum. This equation demonstrate that Mass of an object multiply by the speed of light squared will generate the amount of energy the mass would be equivalent.

## E is for energy

The word energy was quite new and indefinable in the time of early 1800s. People recognized that there were different power forces around such as the crackling of static electricity or a gust of wind but however they have no overarching notion of energy at that time. However one man who took a major role in changing and understanding what is energy is Michael Faraday. He developed the principle that was called the law of conservation of energy. Michael Faraday is the son of a black who never attend university or secondary school but however he spend most of his time binding books. When he was 20, a shop visitor offered him a ticket to the lecture hall at the Royal Institution on a speech on electricity and the hidden powers. The speech captivated Faraday and he then become very obsess with Sir Humphry Davy’s lecture notes and eventually he got hired as a lab assistant for Davy. Under Davy’s lab assistant he was ask to do an experiment on the discovery of the relation between electricity and magnetism. Whereas a compass needle put on the electric wire would twist and turn slightly to the side. He then spends his summer of 1821 in his basement laboratory and discovered the basis of the electric engine. Through his experiment he found a way to make a current-carrying wire to rotate around the magnet. Where he observed an invisible force that swirled around a magnet when electricity runs through the wire. Through his observation Faraday was still unable to proof or mathematically formulate the classical electromagnetic theory until James Clerk Maxwell visit Faraday.

James Clerk Maxwell is one enthusiast for the new science of energy after Faraday. He placed energy at the new theories of electromagnetism that he developed from 1850s. Through William Thomason’s advice to read Michael Faraday’s experimental Researches in Electricity and Magnetism, Maxwell produce his first paper, "On Faraday’s Lines of Force", in 1855. Maxwell provided a mathematical elaboration of Faraday’s explanations of electrical and magnetic phenomena in terms of the distribution of hypothetical lines of force through space. Maxwell laid out a complex mechanical model of molecular vortices and idle wheels to represent his theory of energy. His mathematical theory described a real existing medium which is the ether. The ether is where the energy was stored and transformed from one sort to another. He stated that electromagnetic energy and the ether were not hypothetical entities. They were as real as anything else in the universe. Maxwell’s development of the electromagnetic equations was in purely mechanical terms as descriptions of a real mechanical system. The electromagnetic waves, for example would be understood literally as mechanical vibrations in a physical medium.

Michael Faraday later comes to a conclusion that the crackling of electricity, the silent force field of a magnet and the speeding motion of twirling are all linked together. Which was the very first concept of energy at that time but the full concept was still remaining unknown.

The principle of the conservation of energy regardless plays a major key role in the nineteenth century. On the one hand, it provides a brand new and powerful theoretical tool for a better understanding of the nature. On the other, it provided an equally powerful resource for the institutional reorganization of natural philosophy.

Conservation of energy is the marks of the end of natural philosophy and the beginning of physics. The principle of the conservation of energy provided us a focus for the emergence of physics as a discipline. It gives Physicists a set of experimental and theoretical practices and theories through experiment. Conservation of energy is the way of demonstrating the intellectual and practical power of the new discipline such as the steam engines and telegraphs; it signalled the important role that physics play in the industrial society.

## M is for mass

The concept of mass was like the concept of energy before the 19th century. No one understands the different material substances and their relation to each other. However, one man took a major role of changing and understanding mass is Antoine-Laurent Lavoisir who is also known as the father of the modern chemistry. He is the one that proved that substances that fill the universe can be burned, squeezed, shredded, or hammered to bits but they would never be disappear. He then later develops a principle, law of conservation of mass where it stated that the mass of an object cannot be created or destroyed. With all of Lavoisier’s accurate weighting and chemical analysis, he come to an experiment of the measurement of liquid and the transformation from liquid to gas back to liquid. He demonstrate such experiment with water, where he pour a fix amount of water into a cylinder and carefully measure them, then he had a tube connect to the seal container of the water and use fire to heat up the water by transforming liquid into gas and carry onto another sealed container. He then measure the two and where he found that the amount of weight from the original water is exactly equivalent to the weight of the water on the other contain. Through his experiment he comes to end where he stated all mass in the universe cannot be created or destroyed.

## C is for celeritas

Celeritas is a Latin word that simply means the speed of light. Before the mid 17th century, scientists believed that the speed of light was at an infinite speed. Until Ole Roemer in the late 17th who observe differences between the speed of light and distance far away. He challenge one of the powerful astronomers Cassini that light traveled does not travel as an instantaneous flash. He stated that it actually took light some time for light to travel the great distance. As in his experiment, he used the moon at Jupiter, Io as an example, he discovered that in the summer when the Earth is closer to Jupiter, the light’s journey from Earth to Io was shorter and the image would arrive sooner on the telescope. While on the other hand, in the winter when Earth was further away from Jupiter which it actually takes longer for Io’s image to reach him. However, at that period of time Europe’s astronomers still did not accept that speed of light traveled at a finite speed and therefore Cassini’s supporter won and speed of light was just a mystical, immeasurable figure. Until 50 years later with further experiments, it convinces astronomers that Roemer had been right. The speed of light was measured at about 299,792,458 per second.

## 2 is for squared

In Einstein equation the "²" is the squaring of the speed of light. This development was by a girl name Emilie du Châtelet. She was one of Newton’s greatest interpreters. In 1733, Emilie developed a secret relationship with a French Enlightenment writer, François-Marie Arouet. They then spend time together to studies Physics and mathematics and published scientific articles and translations. During their time together, they turned their base in north-eastern France into a scientific research with a library comparable to that of the Academy of Sciences in Paris, and it had the latest laboratory equipment from London. Through her experiment, she often study and trying to find out what is energy, while Valtaire and other people often thought energy is simply the product of its mass times its velocity which is MV. Valtaire thought that if a five-pound ball is going at 10mph, it has 50 units of energy because 5x10 = 50. But however Emilie Du Chatelet argues it was more competing than that. Thus, they found decisive evidence through the experiment of a weighty test. According to Voltaire, he believe that if you drop an object that is twice as much fast as the previous object then it would sink twice as deep as the previous one onto the clay. However, through Du Chatelet’s experiment she found out that whenever you double the speed of the object, it will sank four times as far into the clay. Hence, while you drop the object three times as fast then it sank nine times as far into the clay. Through her experiment with kinetic energy, she combined the theories of Gottfried Leibniz to show that the energy of a movie object is proportional not to its velocity but to the square of its velocity. Through that, she improved Newton and develop a brand new equation that stated E=MV².

Over the time physicists often used her equation to calculate the mass of the object by using E=MV². Whereas, the object’s mass multiply by the square of its velocity to come up with the indicator of its energy. If the velocity of a ball was at 10mph, they will use the mass times 10 squared. However if the velocity of the ball was ever to reach up to 670 million mph that is equivalent to the speed of light then it will reveal its ultimate energy that object can contain. Speed of light is the speed that is certainly the fastest speed of all at it fix limit. Though this Einstein was about to come up with the brand ultimate equation that reveal the whole universe of all as E= MC².

## The equation explanation

Though the equation we come to a conclusion that energy equals mass times the speed of light squared. On the most basic level, the equation stated that energy and mass are interchangeable. They are different forms of the same thing whereas under the right conditions energy is mass and mass can also be energy. When you stated "c", speed of light as "1" then Energy equals to mass. Whenever you want to determine the pure energy inside an object then the resulting energy is by definition moving at the speed of light which is the fastest speed at a fix limit. Pure energy is electron magnetic radiation that travels at a constant speed of roughly 670,000,000 miles per hour. According to Emilie du Châtelet that whenever an object is moving as the "x" number of times as fast as something else, and then had "x²" times of energy it contain. As you square the speed of light at 670,000,000, number was so huge that it becomes even so big as 448,900,000,000,000,000 in units of mph. Therefore, the amount of energy of a smallest mass object could eventually be massive due to the huge number of the speed of light squared. As an example, the energy in a nutshell would be has an enough potential energy locked within it to power a city.

## Radioactivity and nuclear energy

Albert Einstein did not directly participate in the invention of the atomic bomb. But as we shall see, he was instrumental in facilitating its development. The nuclear idea is after the discovery of the electron. The discoveries of X-rays and radioactivity which open up a brand new set of problems for physicists. At that time of period through Einstein’s equation it can perfectly describes what we do to produce nuclear energy. Einstein’s equation E= MC² is the result of a new understanding of the structure of the atom. Nuclear weapon is operated on the principle defined by the equation where the mushroom cloud of an atomic bomb explosion is E= MC² made visible. This equation spread a whole new branch of science where involve in high energy and particle physics. Einstein’s equation, by theory can give theses energies by measuring mass differences before and after reaction. E= MC² is used to understand the amount of energy potentially released in a fission reaction of an atom; however it was not strictly purposed for the development of the nuclear weapon. This was reveal by the British for explore the possibility of building a nuclear bomb. By 1939 Bohr and other described that the only way to derive significant amounts of energy is from the fission the breakup of radioactive atoms that is known as the chain reaction. Nuclei of such atoms fission was normally at a very slow rate, each liberating a small but significant amount of radiation. Some radioactive element such as the uranium 235 and the artificial element plutonium are capable of initiating fission if they collide with another nucleus. Small quantities of the radioactive element of the element where the neutrons escape before they can hit another nucleus but if the quantity exceeds a "critical mass" then the neutrons will begin to fission enough extra atoms to produce a cascade of further collisions the chain reaction. In the nuclear reactor the chain reaction is sustained at a level that it will produce a constant amount of energy. In an uncontrolled chain reaction, the whole mass of atoms will disintegrate in a fraction of a second whereas it generates a very strong vast amount of energy in the form of a great explosion. The simplest concept form of the atomic bomb is to bring two subcritical masses together to create a critical mass which will create an immediately explosion. The bomb consists of five kilograms of atom, where certainly small enough to form the bomb. The bomb consists of the U-238, which cannot form a chain reaction; whereas only 0/7% is the vital U-235 that used to make a bomb. When convert uranium-238 into plutonium it create a potential source of fissionable material for the bomb. Although Albert Einstein was not technically involve in this development of the nuclear weapon but his theory behind it was the major role for developing such incredible new energy known as the nuclear power.

## Space and Time

In 1905, Albert Einstein published his paper on "The Electrodynamics of Moving Bodies" in the Annalen der Physik. In his paper Einstein introduced two new principles into physics that led eventually to a completely new understanding of the nature of space and time within his equation E= MC². The first principle is the laws of physics are the same for all observers in uniform motion relative to one another. The second principle is that the speed of light in a vacuum is the same for all observers, regardless of their relative motion or of the motion of the source of the light. In his principle of relativity, there was no privileged, where absolute perspective from which to view events in the universe. It stated that all movement could only be measured relative to some particular frame of reference. It said that everything was relative, except for the velocity of light which remained the same in all frames of reference. Time as experienced within one frame of reference proceeded at a different rate from time as experienced from a frame of reference moving at a different velocity. Einstein’s theory come from a Dutch physicist Hendrik Antoon Lorentz who proposed the existence of a contraction effect in an electrical charges that moving at high velocities as a way of accounting for slight variations in the force they exerted on one another. One of Einstein’s supplementary paper consist of the first proofs of the famous equations linking mass and energy, stating that the energy of a body is equal to its mass multiplied by the square of the speed of light. In 1908, Hermann Minkowski, a former teacher of Einstein’s at Zurich develop a simplified mathematical approach to relativity and introduction to the possibility of expressing the relationship between space and time in terms of non-Euclidean geometry. According to Einstein’s theory, the principle of relativity applies to the systems that were accelerating relative to each other. Einstein also developed a mathematical way to apply on Minkowsky’s suggestions concerning non-Euclidean geometries of space and time to the theory of gravitation. He later, found a way to describe the gravitation that is in the terms of the curvature of space and time. The equation E= MC² was what he use to took expanded into a new theory which is known as the general theory of relativity.

In Einstein’s Special Theory of Relativity published in 1905 theoretically speculated that traveling close to the speed of light which is about 300,000,000 meters per second would physically alter time backward. As far as science history is concern, Albert Einstein did not mention about time travel but however his theory would later provide a compelling evidence of the theoretical possibility of time travel. In 1916, General Theory of Relativity was published as an extension of the Special Theory published in 1905 to include gravity. One of the tenets of the new theory was the physical and mathematical underpinnings of time being the fourth dimension. In addition to the common three dimensional space where we are moving in the real world up and down or forward and backward. General Relativity was extremely effective and successful in explaining previously unexplained natural phenomena. But, Einstein himself being completely aware that not all consequences of a scientific theory is valid, he passed way in 1955 far from being convinced of time travel in factual occurrence.